Category Archives: Etats-Unis

La NBA ouvre son nouveau magasin géant à New York

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Dernière mise à jour Le 21/12/2015 à 09:04 – Publié le 21/12/2015 à 09:04

Ce lundi, la NBA ouvre une enseigne de plus de 2300 mètres carrés au cœur de New York. Un temple à la gloire du basket américain.

Quatre ans que les supporters NBA attendaient ce moment. En 2011, juste après le conflit entre joueurs et propriétaires, la ligue de basket avait fermé son grand magasin de la 5e avenue, remplacé par une boutique beaucoup plus petite.

Ce lundi marque le grand retour du NBA Store dans sa version la plus démesurée. Au coin de la 5e et de la 45e à Manhattan, ce sont trois étages et plus de 2300 mètres carrés qui attendent les amoureux de la balle orange.

Plus qu’un magasin

Dans ce lieu, tous les produits dérivés possibles et imaginables seront disponibles. Les chaussures ont aussi une place de choix.

Mais les concepteurs sont allés plus loin. Les écrans placés dans le magasin pourront répondre dans sept langues aux besoins des clients. Des écrans seront aussi là pour diffuser les stats et highlights des dernières rencontres, et même des matchs en direct. Un espace pour jouer à la console ou prendre quelques tirs est également là, tandis que quelques éléments rappellent les grands moments de la NBA.

Pour les plus pressés, la personnalisation d’un maillot est possible en une quinzaine de minutes.

Aucun risque pour la NBA

En plus de récupérer un lieu à sa gloire, la NBA ne risque rien. Car c’est le géant de la vente en ligne Fanatics qui gère le lieu, les stocks et les employés. Les vendeurs sont d’ailleurs équipés de tablettes pour permettre aux clients de commander des pièces qui ne seraient pas disponibles et de les recevoir chez eux.

La NBA n’a plus qu’à attendre de voir tomber sa part sur les ventes. Elle devrait être conséquente !

 

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Magasins aux Etats-Unis dans les années 50

http://pleasantfamilyshopping.blogspot.fr

JCPenney: nouveau trimestre de croissance de l’activité.

JCPenney était attendu en très forte hausse vendredi matin à la Bourse de New York après l’annonce de ventes à magasins constants en hausse de 6,2% au premier trimestre.

Cette performance meilleure que prévu représente le deuxième trimestre consécutif de croissance organique pour la la chaîne américaine de grands magasins, un élément jugé prometteur par les investisseurs.

Le distributeur de Plano (Texas) a enregistré sur le trimestre clos début mai un chiffre d’affaires net de 2,8 milliards de dollars, contre un peu plus de 2,6 milliards de dollars sur la même période de l’exercice précédent.

Dans son communiqué, le groupe précise que ses ventes se sont systématiquement accrues – en rythme séquentiel – au cours de chaque mois du trimestre.

JCPenney indique avoir profité des bonnes performances de ses divisions de prêt-à-porter masculin et féminin, d’équipements pour la maison et de joaillerie, tout en mettant en évidence la solidité des résultats des ‘corners’ Sephora.

Si sa perte nette est restée relativement stable à 352 millions de dollars, la marge brute s’est améliorée pour s’établir à 33,1% des ventes, contre 30,8% un an plus tôt.

Le distributeur explique avoir réduit ses coûts commerciaux, généraux et administratifs (SG&A) de quelque 70 millions de dollars au cours du trimestre, notamment par le biais d’une diminution des dépenses publicitaires.

Pour son deuxième trimestre, JCPenney dit encore prévoir une croissance de son activité à périmètre comparable de l’ordre de 5%, un rythme de croissance qui devrait également se matérialiser sur l’ensemble de l’exercice.

En avant-Bourse, le titre bondissait de plus de 18%. Depuis le début de l’année, la valeur avait reculé de plus de 8%.

Copyright (c) 2014 CercleFinance.com.

www.jcpenney.com

USA / 2013 TOP 100 RETAILERS

Ranksort icon Company Headquarters 2012 USA Retail Sales ($000) Sales Growth (’12 v ’11) Worldwide Retail Sales ($000) USA % of Worldwide Sales 2012 Stores Stores Growth (’12 v ’11)
1 Wal-Mart Bentonville, Ark. $328,704,000 4.0% $467,896,000 70.3% 4,570 3.3%
2 Kroger Cincinnati $92,165,000 6.6% $92,165,000 100.0% 3,538 -1.0%
3 Target Minneapolis $71,960,000 5.1% $71,960,000 100.0% 1,778 0.9%
4 Costco Issaquah, Wash. $71,042,000 10.6% $97,062,000 73.2% 435 2.4%
5 The Home Depot Atlanta $66,022,000 6.4% $74,754,000 88.3% 1,965 0.1%
6 Walgreen Deerfield, Ill. $65,014,000 -1.2% $66,977,000 97.1% 7,821 2.2%
7 CVS Caremark Woonsocket, R.I. $63,688,000 6.7% $63,863,000 99.7% 7,472 1.7%
8 Lowe’s Mooresville, N.C. $49,366,000 0.2% $50,521,000 97.7% 1,715 0.2%
9 Safeway Pleasanton, Calif. $37,532,000 1.6% $42,237,000 88.9% 1,418 -2.4%
10 McDonald’s Oak Brook, Ill. $35,593,000 4.2% $88,290,000 40.3% 14,146 0.4%
11 Amazon.com Seattle, Wash. $34,416,000 30.4% $61,093,000 56.3% na
12 Best Buy Richfield, Minn. $34,411,000 1.1% $45,385,000 75.8% 1,500 4.0%
13 Sears Holdings Hoffman Estates, Ill. $30,727,000 -9.2% $36,102,000 85.1% 3,229 -7.5%
14 Macy’s Cincinnati $27,610,000 4.9% $27,686,000 99.7% 841 0.1%
15 Publix Lakeland, Fla. $27,485,000 1.9% $27,485,000 100.0% 1,230 2.7%
16 SUPERVALU Eden Prairie, Minn. $27,457,000 -6.3% $27,457,000 100.0% 2,404 -2.5%
17 Ahold USA / Royal Ahold Carlisle, Pa. $25,845,000 3.1% $62,260,000 41.5% 772 2.1%
18 Rite Aid Camp Hill, Pa. $25,392,000 0.5% $25,392,000 100.0% 4,623 -0.9%
19 Apple Stores / iTunes Cupertino, Calif. $23,998,000 34.6% $26,790,000 89.7% 255 4.1%
20 TJX Framingham, Mass. $19,422,000 11.6% $25,719,000 75.5% 2,335 5.6%
21 Kohl’s Menomonee Falls, Wis. $19,279,000 2.5% $19,279,000 100.0% 1,146 1.7%
22 Delhaize America Salisbury, N.C. $18,800,000 -2.2% $29,212,000 64.4% 1,553 -5.9%
23 H-E-B San Antonio $18,201,000 8.2% $19,410,000 93.8% 318 3.2%
24 YUM! Brands Louisville, Ky. $17,964,000 5.1% $34,572,000 52.0% 18,069 0.1%
25 True Value Chicago $16,603,000 -1.6% $16,603,000 100.0% 4,569 -1.6%
26 Dollar General Goodlettsville, Tenn. $16,022,000 8.2% $16,022,000 100.0% 10,506 5.7%
27 Meijer Grand Rapids, Mich. $15,814,000 2.8% $15,814,000 100.0% 198 0.5%
28 Wakefern / ShopRite Keasbey, N.J. $13,656,000 6.4% $13,656,000 100.0% 300 3.1%
29 J.C. Penney Plano, Texas $12,908,000 -24.7% $12,985,000 99.4% 1,097 -0.7%
30 BJ’s Wholesale Club Westborough, Mass. $12,465,000 6.0% $12,465,000 100.0% 200 2.6%
31 Staples Framingham, Mass. $12,293,000 -0.8% $20,030,000 61.4% 1,547 -2.3%
32 Subway Milford, Conn. $12,237,000 9.2% $18,417,000 66.4% 25,900 3.5%
33 Gap San Francisco $12,031,000 5.1% $15,113,000 79.6% 2,391 -1.8%
34 Nordstrom Seattle $11,762,000 12.1% $11,762,000 100.0% 240 6.7%
35 Whole Foods Market Austin, Texas $11,324,000 15.6% $11,699,000 96.8% 322 3.5%
36 Bed Bath & Beyond Union, N.J. $10,913,000 16.1% $10,983,000 99.4% 1,434 25.5%
37 7-Eleven Dallas $10,699,000 7.5% $93,011,000 11.5% 7,672 6.3%
38 Aldi Batavia, Ill. $10,041,000 8.9% $42,321,000 23.7% 1,260 5.4%
39 Ace Hardware Oak Brook, Ill. $10,008,000 3.4% $12,510,000 80.0% 4,104 0.8%
40 Ross Stores Pleasanton, Calif. $9,712,000 12.9% $9,721,000 99.9% 1,198 6.6%
41 L Brands (formerly Limited Brands) Columbus, Ohio $9,399,000 -0.2% $10,074,000 93.3% 2,619 -0.2%
42 Family Dollar Stores Matthews, N.C. $9,331,000 9.2% $9,331,000 100.0% 7,442 6.0%
43 Army Air Force Exchange Dallas $9,093,000 5.0% $9,093,000 100.0% 182 1.1%
44 Wendy’s Dublin, Ohio $9,038,000 1.2% $9,719,000 93.0% 5,817 -1.0%
45 Bi-Lo (formerly Winn-Dixie Stores) Jacksonville, Fla. $8,957,000 353.0% $8,957,000 100.0% 688 232.4%
46 Starbucks Seattle $8,805,000 9.5% $11,745,000 75.0% 11,128 3.2%
47 Burger King Worldwide Miami $8,615,000 3.1% $15,842,000 54.4% 7,183 -0.5%
48 Menard Eau Claire, Wis. $8,441,000 4.6% $8,441,000 100.0% 273 4.2%
49 Good Neighbor Pharmacy Chesterbrook, Pa. $8,357,000 3.9% $8,357,000 100.0% 3,445 1.1%
50 Darden Restaurants Orlando $8,213,000 3.9% $8,467,000 97.0% 2,120 9.5%
51 Verizon Wireless Basking Ridge, N.J. $8,010,000 7.6% $8,010,000 100.0% 1,910 -18.0%
52 Toys « R » Us Wayne, N.J. $8,009,000 -3.3% $15,768,000 50.8% 872 0.1%
53 Trader Joe’s Monrovia, Calif. $7,844,000 7.4% $31,666,000 24.8% 395 5.1%
54 AT&T Wireless Dallas $7,577,000 16.8% $7,577,000 100.0% 2,300 0.0%
55 Health Mart Systems Omaha, Neb. $7,350,000 4.5% $9,908,000 74.2% 3,030 6.3%
56 Dollar Tree Chesapeake, Va. $7,266,000 11.3% $7,395,000 98.3% 4,531 6.6%
57 Office Depot Boca Raton, Fla. $7,020,000 -3.8% $10,352,000 67.8% 1,106 -1.7%
58 AutoZone Memphis $6,949,000 6.5% $7,306,000 95.1% 4,657 3.3%
59 Giant Eagle O’Hara Township, Pa. $6,823,000 2.9% $6,823,000 100.0% 411 1.2%
60 Wegmans Food Markets Rochester, N.Y. $6,736,000 8.7% $6,736,000 100.0% 81 3.8%
61 Dunkin’ Brands Canton, Mass. $6,685,000 4.0% $8,777,000 76.2% 9,734 2.8%
62 Barnes & Noble New York $6,546,000 -0.6% $6,546,000 100.0% 1,354 1.2%
63 DineEquity Glendale, Calif. $6,519,000 3.1% $6,907,000 94.4% 3,435 1.5%
64 Dillard’s Little Rock, Ark. $6,489,000 4.8% $6,489,000 100.0% 302 -0.7%
65 A&P Montvale, N.J. $6,257,000 -7.9% $6,257,000 100.0% 291 -6.1%
66 O’Reilly Automotive Springfield, Mo. $6,182,000 6.8% $6,182,000 100.0% 3,976 6.3%
67 Advance Auto Parts Roanoke, Va. $6,155,000 0.6% $6,197,000 99.3% 3,768 3.6%
68 GameStop Grapevine, Texas $6,125,000 -6.7% $8,887,000 68.9% 4,377 -1.8%
69 Dick’s Sporting Goods Coraopolis, Pa. $5,836,000 12.0% $5,836,000 100.0% 601 7.1%
70 PetSmart Phoenix $5,740,000 10.7% $5,980,000 96.0% 1,198 3.4%
71 QVC West Chester, Pa. $5,585,000 3.2% $8,516,000 65.6% na
72 Defence Commissary Agency Fort Lee, Va. $5,199,000 2.6% $5,199,000 100.0% 180 0.0%
73 Big Lots Columbus, Ohio $5,195,000 2.1% $5,350,000 97.1% 1,495 3.0%
74 Save Mart Modesto, Calif. $5,098,000 1.2% $5,098,000 100.0% 241 1.3%
75 Sherwin-Williams Cleveland $5,000,000 10.4% $5,410,000 92.4% 3,378 1.6%
76 WinCo Foods Boise, Idaho $4,932,000 8.0% $4,932,000 100.0% 86 7.5%
77 OfficeMax Naperville, Ill. $4,831,000 -3.7% $6,238,000 77.4% 836 -5.1%
78 Alimentation Couche-Tard Tempe, Ariz. $4,763,000 5.3% $8,248,000 57.7% 3,941 3.3%
79 Tractor Supply Co. Brentwood, Tenn. $4,664,000 10.2% $4,664,000 100.0% 1,176 8.4%
80 Chick-fil-A Atlanta $4,618,000 14.0% $4,618,000 100.0% 1,702 5.4%
81 Harris Teeter Supermarkets Matthews, N.C. $4,535,000 5.8% $4,535,000 100.0% 208 2.0%
82 Foot Locker New York $4,468,000 12.9% $6,129,000 72.9% 2,406 -2.8%
83 Dell Round Rock, Texas $4,369,000 -8.0% $4,369,000 100.0% na
84 Neiman Marcus Dallas $4,345,000 8.6% $4,345,000 100.0% 78 -1.3%
85 Hy-Vee W. Des Moines, Iowa $4,257,000 -5.8% $4,257,000 100.0% 255 -2.3%
86 Brinker International Dallas $4,139,000 2.5% $4,580,000 90.4% 1,321 -1.0%
87 Burlington Coat Factory Burlington, N.J. $4,104,000 7.1% $4,131,000 99.3% 492 4.5%
88 Michaels Stores Irving, Texas $3,989,000 4.3% $4,408,000 90.5% 1,124 1.4%
89 Belk Charlotte, N.C. $3,957,000 7.0% $3,957,000 100.0% 301 -0.7%
90 Bloomin’ Brands Tampa, Fla. $3,931,000 3.7% $4,606,000 85.3% 1,266 1.4%
91 Williams-Sonoma San Francisco $3,920,000 6.5% $4,043,000 97.0% 566 0.9%
92 IKEA North America Conshohocken, Pa. $3,902,000 10.4% $36,406,000 10.7% 39 2.6%
93 Roundy’s Supermarkets Milwaukee $3,887,000 1.6% $3,887,000 100.0% 161 1.9%
94 Stater Bros. Holdings San Bernardino, Calif. $3,873,000 4.9% $3,873,000 100.0% 167 0.0%
95 Sonic Oklahoma City, Okla. $3,791,000 2.6% $3,791,000 100.0% 3,556 -0.1%
96 Albertsons Boise, Idaho $3,652,000 -10.9% $3,652,000 100.0% 190 -10.0%
97 Price Chopper Supermarkets Schenectady, N.Y. $3,627,000 2.0% $3,627,000 100.0% 130 0.8%
98 RadioShack Fort Worth, Texas $3,603,000 -5.7% $3,824,000 94.2% 5,307 -3.2%
99 Ingles Markets Black Mountain, N.C. $3,578,000 4.3% $3,578,000 100.0% 203 0.0%
100 The Sports Authority Englewood, Colo. $3,509,000 3.9% $3,509,000 100.0% 478 3.9%
Source: Kantar Retail
Notes

  • na: Not available or not applicable
  • USA = 50 States and District of Columbia; Sales in Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, and Guam have been estimated and removed if reported as part of the US business segment for that company.
  • All retail sales estimates are excluding wholesale and non-retail services (not sold at store).
  • Fuel sales are included, except where revenues of fuel exceed 50% of average store revenues, in this case sales are reported exclusive of fuel sales.
  • All figures are estimates based on Kantar Retail research and company reports

http://www.stores.org

In this digital age, it seems remarkable that bricks-and-mortar retailers have displayed such staying power. But only two truly pure-play online merchants appear in STORES magazine’s annual report on the nation’s Top 100 Retailers, and it just may be that traditional retailers do all the heavy lifting when it comes to pushing goods through the consumer pipeline.

Amazon.com is the ever-growing 800-lb. e-commerce gorilla and fledglings like Warby Parker are the merchants du jour among the Twittering classes. Most people, however, still do the bulk of their shopping at Walmart, Target, Macy’s and lots of supermarkets and home improvement chain stores. Truth is, more than 15 years into the dot-com revolution, online transactions account for less than 15 percent of total retail sales.

For example, five Top 100 large-format value retailers — Wal-Mart (including Sam’s Club), Target, Costco Wholesale, Meijer and BJ’s Wholesale — collectively generate nearly half a trillion dollars in annual sales. In contrast, Amazon.com and Dell Direct, the pure e-commerce retailers among the Top 100, posted combined U.S. sales of $38.8 billion.

In a year that saw collective sales decline 1 percent, the department stores in the Top 100 still generated average sales of $23.3 billion in 2012. Top 100 supermarkets were nearly as strong, averaging $21.2 billion in 2012 sales.

This brawny show of retail sales does not detract from what Amazon is and what it does best. As it gobbles up consumer dollars, leaving whole chains of venerable retailers as well as mom-and-pop e-commerce startups in its wake, the brainchild of Jeff Bezos aspires to be more than a retailer and more than a provider of electronic content.

Amazon dominates the world of e-commerce sales, estimated at $259 billion in 2013; that’s a healthy 14.8 percent year-over-year gain, according to eMarketer. Amazon’s share is estimated to be 15.4 percent of the entire e-commerce pie — and 28 percent of the 500 biggest e-commerce players, according to Internet Retailer. What’s more, eMarketer says Amazon’s ad revenues are forecast to increase 37 percent to $835 million this year.

Amazon’s big moves
In the past, Amazon’s gaudy quarterly growth figures were dismissed in some quarters as representing relatively small amounts of real dollars. Not so anymore, says Kantar Retail’s Anne Zybowski, who points out that Amazon has been adding sales at a faster rate and by a greater amount.
Zybowski, vice president of retail insights at Kantar Retail, says Amazon added about $7 billion more in sales since 2010 than Wal-Mart, and should keep pace with or outperform Wal-Mart over the next five years.

Amazon is doing many things you would expect a retailer to do, from spending money building warehouses to developing new products for its house-brand of electronic devices — and creating new content for those devices. But non-retail Amazon is heavily involved as virtual landlord for all the merchants in its Marketplace online shopping mall and is continually upgrading and expanding its technology-for-hire Web Services business.

Amazon also moved more heavily into the drug store space with the launch of Amazon.com/50ActiveLiving, a virtual store filled with health, wellness, beauty and personal care products aimed at consumers 50 and older.

Earlier this year, Amazon purchased the Goodreads book-selling web operation and launched a memorabilia store called Entertainment Collectibles with merchandise inspired by movies, television shows and celebrities. In a more recent deal with Viacom, Amazon won the exclusive right to stream Nickelodeon programs, including such shows as “Dora the Explorer” and “SpongeBob SquarePants.”

After years of testing its AmazonFresh delivery service in its home market of Seattle, Amazon is expanding in the grocery arena: The delivery concept debuted in Los Angeles last month, offering products from butchers, fishmongers, greengrocers and other merchants.

Points of differentiation
Amazon’s Prime service, in existence since 2005 and offering such perks as free two-day shipping on most orders and access to Amazon Instant on-demand videos, has long been a draw. Yet according to Complete Blog, Prime customers are willing to pay for shipping on 39 percent of their orders, which indicates that Prime membership’s primary advantage is often ignored.

The opacity surrounding whether a customer is actually purchasing from Amazon or a third-party merchant using Amazon’s Marketplace platform means there is virtually no seller-buyer relations beyond the transaction. Such practice extends to eBay, Google and other online exchanges and virtual malls, where shoppers don’t seem to know that eBay and Google aren’t selling the goods being purchased.

E-commerce platform providers are attempting to blur the lines and connect directly with consumers. eBay and Kate Spade recently partnered on pop-up stores in New York City featuring a touchscreen storefront window, combining eBay’s mobile shopping expertise with its PayPal payment program in a bricks-and-mortar location.

While the distinctions among and between e-commerce platforms and physical stores can be significant, the consumer makes use of any and all channels available, suggests Zybowski. “It’s not about online or off-line, it’s about multi-channel,” she says, adding that “multi-channel means more than a physical store with a website.”

Digital commerce has three components, Zybowski explains: traditional desktop or laptop computer-based online shopping; tablet-based e-commerce; and mobile commerce using smartphones and other communications devices.

“M-commerce is not about to plateau. It will continue to grow because consumers use their phones” to compare prices, navigate stores and for real-time social purchase consulting, in addition to making purchases, she says. “It really is a different type of digital commerce from computer-based and even tablet-based.”

Other than Amazon.com and Dell, which shed its physical retail connections, there are no “pure” e-commerce businesses large enough to qualify for the Top 100 Retailers. (Non-store retailer QVC is not considered a “pure-play” e-commerce retailer due to its shop-at-home broadcast component.) Zybowski attributes that, at least in part, to the acquisition activity of traditional store-based retailers like Wal-Mart and Target as they grow their own e-commerce businesses. A more pertinent example was the move made last year by TJX, which spent $200 million to acquire Wyoming-based online merchant Sierra Trading Post.

Some online merchants like Overstock.com and Newegg.com might gain such scale, but many growing online retailers have also begun opening bricks-and-mortar stores, including Bonobos, Warby Parker and Piperlime.

Merchants conversant with retailing in the physical world choose to emphasize their store-built brands to make a point of differentiation. Wal-Mart, Macy’s, Walgreens and a lot of other bricks-and-mortar operators are using their stores as aids to selling goods in whatever channel customers choose to shop, with the reassuring notion that “You know where you can find us if your Internet connection goes down.”

Building in-store and online
Wal-Mart has been one of the busiest of the store-based retailers promoting technology. Many of the innovations come from @Walmart Labs, the San Bruno, Calif., subsidiary the Bentonville behemoth established to tap into Silicon Valley resources.

Wal-Mart expects to ring up about $9 billion in e-commerce sales this year — only about 2 percent of its worldwide volume, but roughly one-sixth of Amazon’s worldwide retail sales.

One of the tools developed by @Walmart Labs is the proprietary search engine Polaris, which is “on par or even slightly better than Amazon,” according to Matt Nemer, senior analyst at Wells Fargo Securities. The heart of Wal-Mart’s e-commerce program is the site-to-store service launched six years ago and tinkered with ever since, where shoppers pick up orders at a Walmart store and don’t have to pay any shipping charges.

Walmart has also unveiled an app, Scan & Go, which enables users to scan and bag merchandise and pay at a self-checkout kiosk after presenting the data from their phones. Some 10 percent of Walmart’s U.S. stores offer the service; there has been no decision on whether to expand the pilot program as yet, although Wal-Mart spokesman Ravi Jariwala did say that the company was ready to test “mobile coupons and mobile gift cards that can be used as part of that Scan & Go experience.”

Wal-Mart “will continue to invest not only in how the customer wants to shop but how they want to receive the merchandise,” says CFO Charles Holley. “[W]e think we are competing very well from where we started from. We have a lot of work to do to make sure we are more efficient in getting the products to the consumers, but we feel like we have the tools to go do that.”

By many measures, Macy’s is the second-largest traditional retailer in terms of e-commerce volume, a position upon which it seeks to keep building.

“We are accelerating progress in omni-channel strategies at Macy’s and Bloomingdale’s to bring together our efforts in stores, online and mobile in a manner that satisfies emerging shopping patterns and capitalizes on the strength of our inventory regardless of where the customer demand occurs,” Terry J. Lundgren, chairman, president and CEO of Macy’s, told shareholders in February. “And we are engaging shoppers in a manner that engenders loyalty and builds our business with each individual customer.”

Last year, sales exploded at Macys.com and Bloomingdales.com, jumping 41 percent for all of 2012 and 47.7 percent in the holiday-season fourth quarter. The company said online sales positively affected its same-store sales for the year by 2.2 percentage points.

Even so, Macy’s is not cutting back on store-based retailing: In fact, it will spend hundreds of millions of dollars on its Herald Square flagship alone. At more than one million sq. ft. of selling space and billed as “The World’s Largest Store,” parts of the multi-building facility date back to 1902. In June 2013, Macy’s unveiled the second phase of a series of renovations that it says will be completed by this year’s holiday selling season. For the first time, windows along Seventh Avenue will showcase views into the store, and the Seventh Avenue and Broadway buildings will be linked at the mezzanine level as the mezzanine, main and second floors are remodeled.

Convenience, price stability
Other bricks-and-mortar retailers are also looking to exploit their inherent advantages. Convenience is certainly one of them — meaning not just that the store is right around the corner, but also that the items come home when they are purchased.

For some retailers, the convenience message includes being part of the community. This is particularly true of independent stores grouped together under a national banner. A number of such alliances are large enough to rank among the Top 100 Retailers, including Health Mart and Good Neighbor in the retail pharmacy/drug store arena and True Value and Ace in the hardware/home improvement segment.

Another point of emphasis in combating the eBay and Amazon Marketplace mentalities is price stability — one of the features that first gave rise to chains selling everything from groceries to housewares and apparel to office supplies. If something advertised in the morning paper was featured at $19.99, the consumer knew that would be the price when she walked into the store. In the algorithm-ruled world of e-commerce, such price stability can no longer be taken for granted.

Face-to-face human interaction can also be used to stores’ advantage, whether it is Nordstrom’s renowned customer service, do-it-yourself project advice at The Home Depot or the personal shoppers’ assistance at any number of apparel stores. Target has moved in this direction by introducing consultants at 200 locations this summer.

“In an often crowded and sometimes daunting marketplace, Target’s Beauty Concierge program ensures that guests receive the friendly, personalized counsel they need to purchase their favorite beauty products at affordable prices,” says Bryan Everett, a Target senior vice president.

From Jul 2013 | By David P. Schulz | Tags: Cover StoryTop Retailers Lists

Montblanc : une nouvelle boutique pour un nouveau visage à New York

La marque Montblanc vient d’inaugurer sur Madison Avenue à New York (Etats-Unis) une toute nouvelle boutique de 300m2. A cette occasion, le nouveau patron Jérôme Lambert est apparu lors d’une grande soirée aux côtés de Jan-Patrick Schmitz, PDG de Montblanc Amérique du Nord.

Montblanc : une nouvelle boutique pour un nouveau visage à New York
« Montblanc est présent à New York depuis 2003 » a souligné Jan-Patrick Schmitz, grand initiateur de ce projet de nouvelle boutique new-yorkaise, désormais ouverte au public après une longue période de construction et d’aménagement. Peu de gens s’attendaient à voir Montblanc ouvrir une nouvelle enseigne de 300 m² à quelques encablures de la précédente. Encore moins à croiser Jérôme Lambert lors de la cérémonie d’inauguration qui a attiré le « Tout-New York ».

Cette nouvelle adresse, décorée de chandeliers en cristal Swarovski, dispose d’une vitrine dévolue aux  montres, possède un salon privé pour VIP et consacre un mur entier aux instruments d’écriture qui ont fait la renommée de Montblanc.

Cette boutique, qui compte la plus grande collection d’instruments d’écriture Montblanc en édition limitée sur le continent nord-américain, rend hommage à l’esprit pionnier de la marque qui s’exprime depuis plus d’un siècle. Outre la ligne Heritage, cette nouvelle adresse abrite la collection « Signature for Good », dont les recettes sont reversées à l’Unicef. Une gamme lancée lors de la cérémonie des oscars 2013 et qui sera disponible jusqu’en mars 2014.

Jérôme Lambert a réaffirmé cet engagement pour les instruments d’écriture, expliquant qu’il souhaitait continuer à les mettre en valeur tout en déployant davantage d’efforts pour offrir aux montres Montblanc la place qui leur revient sur le marché. « Tout le monde aime écrire avec un stylo Montblanc, déclarait Jérôme Lambert, rencontré lors de l’événement. C’est un luxe incomparable. Notre objectif est de continuer à offrir ce sentiment d’exclusivité pour nos instruments d’écriture tout en valorisant le luxe et la précision des garde-temps Montblanc. »

Nombreux sont les inconditionnels de la marque à avoir été surpris par la nomination de Jérôme Lambert comme PDG de la maison étant donné son parcours fortement ancré dans l’horlogerie. Jérôme Lambert a effectivement été à la tête de Jaeger-LeCoultre pendant plus d’une décennie, après avoir dirigé A. Lange & Söhne durant quelques années. Il a récemment quitté la Suisse pour s’installer à Hambourg (Allemagne), siège de la marque, afin de mieux suivre les activités de Montblanc en matière de maroquinerie, d’instruments d’écriture et d’horlogerie.

« Notre catalogue de montres doit innover autant que nos instruments d’écriture, affirme Jérôme Lambert. Il est temps pour nous de nous inspirer de ce qui est réalisé dans notre manufacture de Haute Horlogerie à Villeret. Nous devons transposer cette inventivité et ce savoir-faire artisanal à notre manufacture principale afin de proposer un design plus innovant pour l’ensemble de nos gammes. C’est le défi que je me suis lancé. Notre Maison est riche d’un patrimoine extraordinaire et foisonne de produits incroyables. La prochaine étape est de fusionner ces savoir-faire de manière plus harmonieuse. »


Montblanc : une nouvelle boutique pour un nouveau visage à New York
À l’occasion de cette inauguration, la marque a dévoilé la toute nouvelle ExoTourbillon Rattrapante. Si la montre en question, issue de la collection Villeret 1858, a été présentée lors du salon de Hong Kong Watches & Wonders en septembre, elle ne devrait pas être commercialisée avant l’été 2014… Fabriquée entièrement à la main dans les ateliers de Villeret, cette pièce est munie d’un chronographe à rattrapante, d’un second fuseau horaire avec indicateur jour/nuit et d’un cadran régulateur avec effet 3D. Le balancier, placé en périphérie de la cage tournante du tourbillon, se veut « à la fois dynamique et esthétique ». Le calibre de manufacture 16.61 constitué de 411 composants offre 55 heures de réserve de marche. Avec son cadran en or et émail grand feu, cette montre sera éditée à seulement 18 exemplaires.

Pour Jérôme Lambert, ce garde-temps doit servir de modèle à l’ensemble des garde-temps Montblanc. « Nous voulons satisfaire les plus exigeants. Nous devons être capables d’assouvir la curiosité de nos clients et ce défi m’exalte. Le plus important est que nous soyons guidés par notre passion pour la Haute Horlogerie et par la volonté de la partager. »

 www.montblanc.com

Vendredi 15 Novembre 2013

La marque de sportswear branchée JUICY COUTURE en vente


04 avril 2013

Le groupe de textile américain Fifth and Pacific, issu de l’ex-groupe Liz Claiborne, envisage de vendre sa marque de sportswear branchée Juicy Couture, indique mercredi le Wall Street Journal sur son site internet, citant des sources proches du dossier.

Le groupe veut également céder la marque de jeans Lucky Brand, ajoute le quotidien financier.

Fifth and Pacific devrait ne conserver qu’une seule marque importante dans son portefeuille d’actifs une fois qu’il aura cédé ces deux enseignes: la marque d’accessoires de luxe kate spade.

Le groupe de prêt-à-porter Liz Claiborne avait vendu en 2011 ses marques Liz Claiborne, Monet, Dana Buchman et Kensie pour un total de 328 millions de dollars, afin de réduire sa dette.

La société qui ne comptait plus que les marques Juicy Couture, Lucky Brand et kate spade, s’était renommée Fifth & Pacific.

L’histoire de la marque Juicy Couture

La marque Juicy Couture voit le jour en 1987. Ses créatrices, Pamela Skaist Levy et Gela Nash Taylor souhaient donner à cette griffe un look chic, décontracté, jeune et branché.
Les débuts de Juicy Couture sont marqués par une collection unique de tee-shirts. Mais c’est une célèbre pièce, le jogging en velours, qui va définitivement assurer le succès de Juicy Couture. La réussite est alors au rendez-vous. Fort de cet incontestable résultat, les deux complices développent ensuite une ligne plus complète Juicy Couture. C’est ainsi que la marque Juicy Couture propose des jeans, une ligne enfant, une collection homme, une ligne d’accessoires, des bijoux ainsi que des parfums..

Les must de la marque Juicy Couture
C’est en envoyant un survêtement Juicy Couture en velours brodé à Madonna, que cette pièce est immédiatement devenue la pièce phare de Juicy Couture. Madonna, vue et photographiée, dans le fameux jogging velours Juicy Couture, permet à la marque de s’inscrire aux rangs des marques de célébrités et assure un succès immédiat à la marque sportswear.
Depuis, d’autres pièces Juicy Couture ont conquis les célébrités, telles que les robes Juicy Couture, Eva Longoria Parker en est totalement accro ! Quant à Megan Fox, c’est le perfecto de cuir noir Juicy Couture qui l’a complètement séduite !

Les égéries de la marque Juicy Couture
Lisa Cant, LukeWorall

 Les fans de la marque Juicy Couture
Madonna, Katy Perry, Jessica Alba, Eva Longoria, Katie Holmes, Molly Sims, Megan Fox, Naomi Campbell, Cameron Diaz

www.juicycouture.com

Polaroid va lancer sa chaine de magasins en Europe en 2014

posté par  le jan 9, 2013 dans Geekosphère 

Il y a quelques jours, Polaroid présentait sa première boutique Fotobar, qui ouvrira ses portes d’ici quelques jours en Floride. L’ex-géant de la photographie ne compte pas s’arrêter au continent américain puisqu’il prévoit d’ouvrir plus de 100 boutiques en Europe en 2014.

© DR

C’est à Delray Beach, en Floride, qu’ouvrira le premier Fotobar de Polaroid. En 2013, le géant compte se développer aux Etats-Unis en ouvrant une dizaine de boutiques à travers le pays. La chaine de magasins offrira un cadre agréable pour les visiteurs, qui pourront retoucher à leur convenance leurs photos de smartphone pour ensuite les imprimer directement dans plusieurs formats.

“Avec le développement d’Instagram et d’autres services de retouche d’image, on remarque que les gens s’intéressent à nouveau à l’impression de leurs clichés” explique un responsable de Polaroid. C’est cette idée que Polaroid souhaite exploiter avec une chaine de magasins qui surfera sur la vague mobile pour tenter de s’imposer.

Et si 2013 devrait marquer un tournant pour le géant, 2014 représentera un véritable défi. Polaroid a en effet l’intention d’ouvrir plus de 100 boutiques à travers le monde en l’espace de deux petites années. L’Europe figure parmi les continents qui devraient voir émerger plusieurs boutiques. Si le géant affirme que la plupart des grosses capitales devraient être desservies, il refuse de donner une confirmation pour les villes concernées. Selon le responsable de communication avec qui nous avons obtenu un entretien, il n’est pas impossible que Bruxelles et Amsterdam figurent sur la liste des villes concernées.

MICROSOFT prévoit l’ouverture de nouveaux magasins

Jeudi 27 Déc 2012 à 14:35

Microsoft a fait part de son souhait d’agrandir son parc de magasins en 2013, selon les déclarations publiées sur son blog officiel. L’entreprise de Redmond détient pas moins de 51 boutiques aux Etats-Unis et au Canada. Mais « la Nouvelle-France » a accueilli les boutiques du fabriquant de matériel informatique seulement depuis cette année. En effet, le groupe fondé par Bill Gates a décidé de s’implanter en 2012 à Edmonton, Burnaby, Vancouver et Toronto. Celles ci constituent les seules boutiques ouvertes à l’étranger.

Les prochaines ouvertures de magasins devraient se situer à San Antonio, Miami, Cleveland, San Francisco, Salt Lake City et Saint Louis, aucune n’est prévue en Europe ou dans le reste du monde.

 

Krispy Kreme célèbre l’ouverture de son 500ème magasin international

 

06 Déc 2012 à 21:00

 WINSTON-SALEM, Caroline du Nord, 6 décembre 2012 /PRNewswire/ — Tandis que la société s’appuie sur sa dynamique de croissance sur ses marchés existants et sur ses nouveaux marchés internationaux, Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation célèbrera son 500ème magasin international en exploitation avec l’ouverture demain d’un nouveau magasin franchisé à Aguascalientes, au Mexique. Depuis l’ouverture de son premier magasin international il y a 11 ans, la société a étendu la présence de sa marque de façon stratégique sur 20 marchés internationaux en Amérique latine, en Asie-Pacifique, au Moyen-Orient et au Royaume-Uni. Avec des accords de développement récemment annoncés pour Moscou, l’Inde et Singapour, Krispy Kreme poursuit le renforcement de sa présence internationale sur des marchés clés dans le monde entier.

(Photo : http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20121206/CL24253)

Krispy Kreme Doughnuts a initialement ouvert au Mexique en 2004 et le nouveau magasin d’Aguascalientes est le 90ème magasin Krispy Kreme au Mexique. La franchise mexicaine est détenue et exploitée par Taco Holding, S.A. de C.V, un groupe dynamique et prospère qui a été récemment nommé Franchisé international de l’année 2012 de Krispy Kreme. Plusieurs activités promotionnelles prometteuses sont prévues pour les fans dans le cadre de l’ouverture de ce nouveau magasin.

« Partager l’expérience unique de la marque Krispy Kreme avec de plus en plus de fans à travers le monde est incroyablement gratifiant », a déclaré Jeff Welch, président international de Krispy Kreme. « Aguascalientes est notre 500ème magasin international en exploitation et j’ai la conviction que nous venons seulement de commencer à voir ce qui est possible pour notre marque à l’échelle mondiale. Magasin frais et autonome, il incarne et démontre la force de notre approche basée sur un réseau en étoile. Grâce à cette approche stratégique que nous avons adoptée pour notre croissance internationale, nous avons aujourd’hui des engagements pour presque 400 magasins internationaux additionnels et sommes donc sur la bonne voie pour atteindre notre objectif corporatif de 900 magasins internationaux d’ici à la fin de l’exercice financier 2017. »

« C’est un honneur pour nous d’ouvrir le 500ème magasin international Krispy Kreme alors que nous faisons aujourd’hui nos débuts sur le marché d’Aguascalientes au Mexique », a ajouté Ramon Soler, directeur exécutif de Krispy Kreme Mexique et directeur d’exploitation de Taco Holding. « Notre partenariat avec Krispy Kreme n’a jamais été plus fort et nous saluons et célébrons aujourd’hui avec elle le franchissement d’une étape décisive. »

Jim Morgan, président et chef de la direction de Krispy Kreme, a commenté : « Krispy Kreme est une marque unique et populaire dans le monde entier. Nous ne pourrions pas être plus fiers de la réussite de notre équipe d’exploitation internationale et de nos franchisés internationaux que nous le sommes à cette occasion significative. »

Le beignet Glacé Original® de Krispy Kreme est vendu dans plus de 730 magasins dans 21 pays, parmi lesquels l’Australie, le Bahreïn, le Canada, la Chine, les Émirats arabes unis, les États-Unis, l’Indonésie, le Japon, le Koweït, le Liban, la Malaisie, le Mexique, les Philippines, Puerto Rico, la République de Corée, la République dominicaine, le Qatar, le Royaume d’Arabie saoudite, la Thaïlande, la Turquie et le Royaume-Uni.

À propos de Taco Holding, S.A. de C.V Taco Holding, S.A. de C.V est le groupe franchisé sous licence de Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation au Mexique. Fondé en mars 2011, Taco Holding détient également les droits sur les marques haut de gamme Arrachera House, Sixties Burger, Sbarro, Neve Gelato et Cafe Diletto. Taco Holding compte plus de 300 magasins de détail au Mexique et plus de 2 000 employés. www.tacoholding.com

À propos de Krispy Kreme Krispy Kreme (NYSE : KKD) est un détaillant et grossiste de marque de premier plan qui se spécialise dans les gâteries sucrées et les produits complémentaires haut de gamme, y compris son beignet exclusif Glacé Original®. Basée à Winston-Salem, en Caroline du Nord, la société propose les beignets de la plus grande qualité et le café le plus succulent depuis sa création en 1937. Connectez-vous à Krispy Kreme sur le site krispykreme.com et sur Facebook, Foursquare, Twitter et YouTube.

Les informations figurant dans le présent communiqué de presse, hormis les informations de nature historique, doivent être considérés comme des énoncés prospectifs au sens du Private Securities Litigation Reform Act de 1995. Les énoncés prospectifs reposent sur les croyances, hypothèses et attentes de la direction concernant nos futurs résultats financiers, à partir des informations qui sont actuellement à la disposition de la direction. Ces énoncés ne sont pas des énoncés de faits historiques. Les énoncés prospectifs impliquent des risques et des incertitudes qui sont susceptibles de causer un écart sensible entre nos résultats, nos performances ou notre situation financière réels et les attentes relatives aux résultats, aux performances ou à la situation financière que nous exprimons, de manière explicite ou implicite, dans lesdits énoncés prospectifs. Les termes « croire », « pourrait », « devrait », « anticiper », « estimer », « avoir l’intention de », « objectif », « chercher à », « s’efforcer de » ou autres mots similaires, ou encore la forme négative de ces mots ou l’usage du futur ou du conditionnel, peuvent servir à identifier les énoncés prospectifs. Les facteurs qui pourraient contribuer à ces écarts incluent, sans limitation : la qualité des activités de la société et des magasins franchisés, notre capacité et notre dépendance vis-à-vis de la capacité de nos franchisés à exécuter nos et leurs plans opérationnels, nos relations avec nos franchisés, notre capacité à mettre en œuvre notre stratégie de croissance internationale, notre capacité à mettre en œuvre notre nouveau modèle d’exploitation de petits magasins nationaux, les risques politiques, économiques et monétaires, ainsi que les autres risques liés à nos activités internationales, le prix et la disponibilité des matières premières nécessaires à la production de pâtes à beignet et des autres ingrédients, de même que le prix du carburant, nos relations avec nos clients grossistes, notre capacité à protéger nos marques de commerce et secrets de fabrication, les changements de préférences et de perceptions des clients, les risques liés à la concurrence, les risques liés au secteur des services alimentaires, y compris la sécurité alimentaire et la protection des informations personnelles, la conformité aux règlementations gouvernementales relatives aux produits alimentaires et au franchisage, ainsi que les coûts accrus ou d’autres effets de nouvelles règlementations gouvernementales relatives aux prestations pour maladie. Ces risques et incertitudes, de même que ceux qui sont décrits de façon plus approfondie dans le rapport annuel sur formulaire 10-K le plus récent de la société et dans ses autres rapports et déclarations déposés auprès de la Securities and Exchange Commission des États-Unis, sont difficiles à prédire, impliquent des incertitudes susceptibles d’affecter sensiblement les résultats réels, peuvent échapper au contrôle de la société et sont susceptibles de causer un écart sensible entre les résultats et développements réels et ceux qui sont exprimés, de façon explicite ou implicite, par n’importe lequel de ces énoncés prospectifs. De nouveaux facteurs peuvent émerger à tout moment et il est impossible pour la direction de prédire la totalité de ces facteurs ou d’évaluer l’impact de chacun d’eux sur la société. Tout énoncé prospectif n’est valide qu’à la date à laquelle il a été formulé et la société décline toute obligation quant à la mise à jour de tout énoncé prospectif pour refléter des évènements ou des circonstances survenant après la date à laquelle le dit énoncé a été formulé.

© 2012 NewsWire
http://www.krispykreme.com/home

Gap Inc se dote d’un nouveau Vice Président

Gap

Le groupe américain annonce le retour de Steve Masters en tant que vice-président en charge de l’immobilier et du développement des magasins.

Steve Masters, qui doit prendre ses nouvelles fonctions de vice-président en charge de l’immobilier et du développement des magasins de Gap Inc dès le mois de juilletprochain, n’est pas inconnu au sein du groupe. En effet, membre de l’équipe Gap Inc Europe de 1999 à 2002,  celui-ci a pendant cette période « permis la croissance duchiffre d’affaire de Gap Inc Europe à travers la bonne gestion stratégique del’ensemble des magasins Gap en Europe, et la direction des équipes informatiqueset financières ».

Son retour implique aujourd’hui l’apport de son expérience dans le domaine dudéveloppement des boutiques et des opérations spéciales en magasins, acquisegrâce à ses diverses positions dans des entreprises telles que WalMart, First Quench Retail (Thresher Group), Polo Ralph Lauren Retail Europe ou encore Disney.

« Le poste de Steve Masters est au centre des projets immobiliers paneuropéens de Gap Inc. Il sera responsable des stratégies immobilières européennes, superviserala conception des magasins et les efforts de développement pour l’ensemble desmagasins appartenant à la société ».

Gap Inc, qui rassemble Banana Republic, Old Navy, Piperlime et Athleta, a atteint14,5 milliards de dollars sur son exercice fiscal 2011. Les produits Gap Inc sontdisponibles à l’achat dans plus de 90 pays dans le monde entier grâce à environ 3000 magasins corporatifs, 200 magasins franchisés et des sites e-commerce.

Stéphanie Santerre

http://www.gap.eu

Tiffany, en chute libre

25 Mai 2012

Le titre du joaillier new-yorkais est chuté de plus de 7% à 57,20$ ce jeudi à Wall Street, de retour au plus bas depuis septembre 2011. Un mauvais présage pour la suite… Le groupe tablerait en effet sur un recul de ses bénéfices aux second et troisième trimestres avant une reprise au dernier trimestre avec l’arrivée des fêtes de fin d’année.

Tiffany a annoncé pour son 1er trimestre fiscal clos fin avril 2012 des revenus en hausse de 8% à 819 M$, pour un bénéfice net par action en hausse de 1% à 64 cents.

La direction du groupe avait révisé ses prévisions sur l’exercice 2012 clos en janvier 2013 : les ventes mondiales sont désormais anticipées en progression de 7-8%, contre 10% précédemment envisagé auparavant.

Le bénéfice net dilué par action est attendu entre 3,70 et 3,80$, contre 3,95$ à 4,05$.

http://www.tiffany.com/International.aspx?origref=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fashionunited.fr%2fbookmarks%2f1%2f2220%2fview

Gap : bénéfice net en baisse de 17 % en 2011

http://www.gap.com/

Le groupe américain Gap affiche un chiffre d’affaires quasi stable de 14,5 milliards de dollars pour l’année 2011, mais enregistre un bénéfice net en chute de 17 %, à833 millions de dollars.

Le groupe Gap, qui détient aussi les marques Banana Republic, Old Navy, Athleta etPiperlime, voit ses ventes 2011 atteindre les 14,5 milliards de dollars (soit 10,8 milliards d’euros), en légère baisse de -1% (-4% à périmètre comparable). Sur cedernier exercice, clos le 28 janvier 2012, la chaîne de distribution voit son bénéfice netfondre de 17%, pour s’établir à 833 millions de dollars, contre 1,2 milliard en 2010. Au4e trimestre, il plonge même de 40 %, à 218 millions de dollars (contre 365 millionssur la même période l’an passé). Un chiffre qui n’a pas l’air d’ébranler le patron dugroupe : « Malgré un bénéfice 2011 plus faible que l’année précédente, noussommes heureux des progrès que nous avons faits notamment en termes decroissance de l’activité en ligne et d’expansion à l’international », a commenté Glenn Murphy, CEO du groupe californien.

Gap s’appuie sur l’international pour sortir la tête de l’eau, car sur son premiermarché, l’Amérique du Nord, il ne parvient pas à rétablir le cap et se voit contraint deresserrer son réseau. Le groupe, qui pilote 3263 magasins répartis dans 39 pays, a vu ses ventes progresser de 4,7% en Europe (à 825 millions de dollars), et de 10,3 en Asie (à 1,2 milliard de dollars). C’est donc aux Etats-Unis et au Canada que lechiffre d’affaires est en berne, avec 9,9 milliards de dollars générés en 2011 contre10,5 en 2010, soit une chute de 5,8%. Sur ce continent, la firme a fermé 50 boutiques de son enseigne éponyme au dernier trimestre. Gap prévoit de se séparer de 115magasins cette année, essentiellement en Amérique du Nord. Côté ouvertures, 8 nouveaux marchés ont été pénétrés en 2011 via la franchise, et 125 points de ventedevraient ouvrir leurs portes en 2012, surtout à l’export. En marge de la publication deses résultats, le groupe a également annoncé le lancement d’un programme derachat de ses actions à hauteur d’un milliard de dollars.

Marion Deslandes 

Darden est le leader mondial de la restauration traditionnel: CA 2011 =7,5 milliards de $ +5.4% vs 2010

http://www.darden.com/
http://www.darden.com/pdf/investor/5yr_Sum_FY11.pdf
Darden Restaurants, le Groupe de restauration américain, a annoncé pour le 3ème trimestre fiscal clos fin février 2012 un bénéfice net dilué par action de 1,25$, en croissance de 16% en glissement annuel. Le bénéfice net des opérations poursuivies a été de 164 M$, contre 152 M$. Les ventes ont atteint 2,16 Mds$, en augmentation de 9%. Le consensus était de 1,24$ de bpa et 2,14 Mds$ de ventes. Lacroissance du bénéfice par action en 2012 est attendue entre 4% et 7%.
Darden est le plus grand du monde société de restauration à service complet.
La famille Darden de restaurants propose certaines des marques les plus reconnaissables et réussie à plein service de restauration: Red Lobster, Olive Garden, Longhorn Steakhouse, The Capital Grille, Bahama Breeze, Seasons 52 et Eddie V. Nos marques sont construits sur des décennies d’apprentissage de nos invités. Leurs inspirations culinaires venus des villages de pêcheurs du Maine, les tableaux de la famille de l’Italie et l’Ouest américain -. Icônes qui reflètent la riche diversité de ceux qui visitent nos restaurants En fait, il n’est pas exagéré de dire que nos plus grandes marques sont devenues des icônes elles-mêmes. Depuis l’ouverture de notre premier restaurant Red Lobster à Lakeland, en Floride, en 1968, Darden a grandi pour devenir le plus grand du monde société de restauration à service complet. Au travers de filiales, nous possédons et exploitons plus de 1.900 restaurants, emploient 180.000 personnes et servir plus de 400 millions de repas par an. 

Franchise restauration : Yum! Brands (KFC) annonce des résultats en hausse sur 2011

14.02.2012, Information communiquée par l’enseigne

Yum! Brands (propriétaire de KFCPizza Hut et Taco Bell), annonce une hausse de son bénéfice par action de 14 % pour le quatrième trimestre 2011. Une croissance tirée notamment par la Chine (+ 33 % de croissance), par Yum! Restaurants International (+ 10 % ) et par les Etats-Unis (+ 6 % ).

En confirmant son dynamisme au niveau international, le groupe poursuit et consolide sa montée en puisance, plus particulièrement en France. En effet, le pays reste un relai de croissance majeur pour Yum! Brands, avec une augmentation de 13 % au quatrième trimestre 2011, et de 20 % sur l’année.

KFC compte aujourd’hui 40 % de restaurants exploités en franchise par 28 partenaires entrepreneurs locaux. L’objectif est d’atteindre 70 % du réseau en franchise d’ici 2016.

Données Annuelles du Compte de Résultat
Données Réelles en M $ Données Estimées en M $
Période Fiscale Décembre 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
CA 10 836 11 343 12 626 13 834 15 118 16 847
Résultat opérationnel (EBITDA) 2 152 2 358 2 630 2 992 3 298 3 760
Résultat d’exploitation (EBIT) 1 572 1 769 2 002 2 327 2 604 2 975
Résultat Avt. Impôt (EBT)
Résultat net 1 071 1 158 1 319 1 613 1 773 2 084
BNA ( $) 2,22 2,38 2,74 3,41 3,82 4,46
Dividende / Action ( $) 0,80 0,92 1,07 1,20 1,36 1,55
Rendement 1,11% 1,28% 1,49% 1,67% 1,90% 2,16%
Date de publication 03/02/2010
21:16
02/02/2011
21:02
06/02/2012
21:09

 

Burger King va faire son retour en Bourse avec l’appui du financier Nicolas Berggruen, Actualités

http://www.bk.com/
Posté le 25 avril 2012 – par collo |

Le numéro un mondial de la restauration rapide a vu son bénéfice progresser de 4,8 %, à 1,27 milliard de dollars au premier trimestre 2012. Un résultat porté par des ventes solides dans ses restaurants aux Etats-Unis.

Malgré la crise, McDonald’s continue de voir grimper ses profits. Au premier trimestre 2012, le géant mondial du « fast food » a vu son bénéfice progresser de 4,8 %, à 1,27 milliard de dollars, contre 1,21 milliard de dollars au premier trimestre 2011. C’est-à-dire exactement le niveau attendu par les analystes consultés par Bloomberg. Le chiffre d’affaires est lui aussi conforme aux prévisions : il a progressé de 7%, à 6,5 milliards.

Ces bons résultats confortent la stratégie du groupe, qui s’est lancé dans une modernisation de son offre et dans la diversification de ses menus, avec des aliments plus sains, mais restant à la portée de toutes les bourses. Déjà, en 2011, McDo avait enregistré un résultat net en hausse de 11 %, à 5,5 milliards de dollars, et un chiffre d’affaires de 27 milliards de dollars (+ 12 % ). Et la chaîne de restauration rapideétait parvenue à gagner des parts de marché un peu partout dans le monde. La tendance pour le deuxième trimestre semble se confirmer, même si la croissance est un peu ralentie, comme l’a indiqué vendredi Jim Skinner, le directeur général du groupe : « La croissance des ventes à nombre de magasins comparable pour avril est attendue autour de 4% », a-t-il déclaré.

Aux Etats-Unis, les ventes ont progressé d’environ 9% au premier trimestre, grâce à un bon trafic dans les restaurants du groupe. McDonald’s reste le leader incontesté sur son marché domestique, loin devant l’autre spécialiste du hamburger, Burger King, qui vient néanmoins de lancer une grande offensive (il a prévu d’investir 750 millions de dollars sur un an dans la rénovation de ses 7.200 restaurants aux Etats-Unis).

La barre placée haut

En Europe, la croissance des recettes à nombre de magasins comparable à été de 5%, tirée par le Royaume-Uni, la Russie, la France et l’Allemagne. « Les difficultés économiques qui se poursuivent et un temps très extrême en février ont eu un impact négatif sur le trimestre », a précisé le groupe. Les ventes en Asie-Pacifique-Afrique et Moyen Orient ont pour leur part progressé de 5,5%, menées par la Chine, l’Australie et le Japon. Lors des échanges électroniques précédant l’ouverture de la séance officielle à Wall Street vendredi, l’action progressait de 1,8%, à 97 dollars.

La barre est donc placée haut pour le futur PDG de McDonald’s, Don Thompson, qui remplacera le 30 juin prochain Jim Skinner, le principal artisan du renouveau de McDonald’s.

Les ECHOS, avec Agences

Source: www.lesechosdelafranchise.com

McDonald valeur vedette de 2011 en Bourse

 

Publié le 26/04/2012 Guillaume Paul

McDonald enchaîne les performances depuis quelques jours. Vendredi dernier l’action avait dépassé les 100 dollars pour la première fois de son histoire. Mardi en milieu de séance, elle a passé le cap des 100 milliards de dollars de capitalisation boursière. C’est assurément l’une des valeurs vedettes cette année à Wall Street.

Le titre McDo signe même la meilleure performance de l’année sur le Dow Jones depuis le 1er janvier, avec une augmentation de 30 %. Il se place ainsi devant d’autres défensives comme IBM ou Chevron, ces valeurs sûres sur lesquels beaucoup d’investisseurs se sont réfugié.

McDo est assimilé depuis déjà quelques années à une valeur défensive. Le groupe ne bénéficie pas forcément la plus forte croissance, mais il est dotée d’une énorme visibilité. Il résiste à quasiment tout, que ce soit la hausse des matières premières ou le ralentissement économique. Il en tire même plutôt parti grâce à sa politique de petits prix plébiscitée par le consommateur américain.

Mc Donald n’a toujours pas de réelle concurrence à ce jour

Mieux encore : ses ventes continuent de progresser en Europe et dans les émergents, comme l’ont encore montré les derniers résultats trimestriels, supérieurs aux attentes. Il faut dire que le groupe n’a toujours pas de réelle concurrence à ce jour. Burger King notamment a quitté la Bourse il y a quelques mois.

Les marchés se posent toutefois la question de la pertinence de cette hausse. Elle est peut-être effectivement à relativiser sachant que deux mondes s’opposent cette année à Wall Street. Il y a d’un côté ces défensives qui, pour certaines d’entre elles, ont atteint des niveaux records ces derniers temps. De l’autre côté, complètement à l’inverse, on retrouve des cycliques massacrées au point de revenir à des niveaux de mars 2009, l’époque où a débuté le grand rebond post-Lehman en Bourse.

Logo McDonald's Corporation

McDonald’s Corporation est la 1re chaîne mondiale de restauration rapide. Le CA par type de restaurants se répartit comme suit :
– restaurants gérés en propre (67,7%) : détention, à fin 2011, de 6 435 restaurants ;
– restaurants franchisés et affiliés (32,3%) : 23 456 franchises et 3 619 affiliés.
En outre, le groupe gère la chaîne de restauration Pret A Manger située au Royaume Uni.
La répartition géographique du CA est la suivante : Etats-Unis (31,6%), Europe (40,3%), Asie-Pacifique-Moyen Orient-Afrique (22,3%) et autres (5,8%).

 

Données Réelles en M $ Données Estimées en M $
Période Fiscale Décembre 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
CA 22 745 24 075 27 006
28 397
30 067 31 809
Résultat opérationnel (EBITDA) 7 992 8 780 9 945 10 436 11 192 11 950
Résultat d’exploitation (EBIT) 6 776 7 504 8 530 9 012 9 701 10 420
Résultat Avt. Impôt (EBT)
Résultat net 4 551 4 946 5 503 5 815 6 261 6 687
BNA ( $) 4,11 4,58 5,27 5,70 6,28 6,89
Dividende / Action ( $) 2,05 2,26 2,62 2,84 3,09 3,48
Rendement 2,19% 2,42% 2,80% 3,04% 3,30% 3,72%
Date de publication 22/01/2010
12:58
24/01/2011
12:58
24/01/2012
12:58


Economic Analyisis of Fashion Retail

http://wiki.nus.edu.sg/display/Fashion/Economic+Analyisis+of+Fashion+Retail

1 NATURE OF MARKET

Fashion retail is typically a consumer goods market. It is characterized by very short product life, fickle consumer preferences, numerous competitors, relatively easy entry and exit, and a myriad of manufacturing, marketing and retail alternatives (Richardson, 1996). Over here, we will mainly make references to U.S and Europe where the fashion capitals – New York, Milan, London and Paris – resides. One of the reasons for their leading role in the apparel sector is that they are able to acquire information on future trends in colour, theme and styles in advance, preparing their own collections by combining and interpreting such information with market data (Aktuglu, 2001).

1.1 Products being sold

Products being sold can be divided into three distinct categories – couture, ready-to-wear (RTW) and mass production.

1.1.1 Couture Wear

Couture wears are exclusively tailored by in-house designers and are produced in limited numbers of expensive, high quality garments. Couture houses are organised according to long-established principles, with the couturier (or designer) providing an identity and direction, supported by assistant designers and a premier de l’atelier (head of the work room). Couture houses are regulated by national organisations which ensure that members meet stringent design, manufacturing and commercial regulations.These regulations make couture garments affordable by very few consumers (Wigley, 2004).

Figure 1: (from left to right) Alexis Mabille, Chanel, Valentino and Christian Dior (Photos courtesy of [style.com] )

1.1.2 Ready-to-Wear (RTW)

As such, to be commercially sustainable, the fashion industry provides less wealthy consumers with cheaper garments. The antecedents of this RTW industry are in eighteenth century second-hand clothes dealers who stocked unwanted samples from tailors and dressmakers. Thereafter, manufacturers were making garments to be specifically sold in such outlets, facilitated by their new ability to produce relatively cheap and high quality garments. RTW acquired greater significance during the 1960’s and afterward as the division between it and couture became blurred. Designers were able produced garments which were distinctive and cutting-edge while remaining relatively affordable (Wigley, 2004).
Figure 2: (from top left) Emporio Armani, Diesel Black Gold, Calvin Klien, Ralph Lauren, D&G, Marc Jacobs, Tommy Hilfiger and Hugo. (Photos courtesy of [Style.com]  and [GQ.com] )

1.1.3 Mass Production

Mass production of clothing was pioneered during the early twentieth century. The process of manufacturing a large number of garments involves fabric testing, pattern cutting, sizing, and assembly. Today, this process is often computerised, using design software to plan the process and automatic machinery to carry it out. Typically, independent companies undertake mass production on behalf of the brand under which the garments are sold, usually high street brands such as Marks and Spencer. As the fortunes of this company illustrate, predicting styles sizes and delivering consistent quality to the customer is challenging. The most successful mass-market retailers have sophisticated forecasting techniques, just-in-time manufacturing, efficient distribution and effective marketing (Wigley, 2004).

A related concept to mass production is fast fashion. They are clothing collections emulating the latest trends on the catwalk that are designed, manufactured swiftly and are priced at an affordable range. It mostly targets mainstream consumers as « they want to be able to buy the things celebrities are wearing or they want to be able to buy into the trends that they’ve seen from the catwalk as quickly as possible » (Fast Fashion, 2004). Some well-known brands that are riding on the fast fashion bandwagon are Zara, H&M, Forever 21, TopShop and Mango.

Figure 3: Images of shops of popular brands such as Forever 21, Zara, Topshop, H&M and Mango (Photos courtesy of [style.com] )

Products being sold are women’s fashion clothing and accessories, women’s standard or non-fashion items, men’s apparel and accessories as well as teens’ and junior clothing and accessories.

1.2 Retail Venues

All these are sold in departmental stores (E.g. U.S: Bloomingdale’s,Target, Wal-Mart, Nordstrom. Europe: Marks and Spencer, Printemps, H&M), boutiques, chain stores, outlet stores and malls.

A study conducted by Fowler & Clodfelter (2001) compared the garments sold at outlet and departmental store and found that  there were only minor differences in their outward appearance as well as the materials used. To differentiate garments sold at the outlet store from the departmental store, both labels were slightly different. For instance, Ralph Lauren outlet shirts have a cream-coloured dot woven into the label; Tommy Hilfiger outlet shirts bore a crest while those from the departmental store had a flag. Despite the variations, only savvy consumers will be aware of these differences. In terms of pricing, garments sold at the outlet store were about 30% lower than in the departmental store since no middleman is involved. However, fashion merchandise offered at the departmental store might not be found at outlet stores simultaneously, only basic merchandises are.

1.3 Price Determination

Pricing strategies are determined by: market factors – market and city characteristics (metropolitan, small city, urban, suburban; chain factors – chain size, positioning, with regards to corporate mission and policies; store factors – store size, category assortment; category factors – size assortment, storability, extent of necessity; brand factors – brand equity or preference, relative brand advertising, relative trade deals and customer factors – consumer sensitivity to price changes (Shankar & Bolton, 2004).

1.3.1 Price Tiers

Prices can also be determined by price tiers. The number of tiers is either market or product specific. Market specific prices can be placed on 3 different levels: national brand, store brand and generic brand. Product specific prices are determined by perceived value and their price, whether they are in the economy, middle market or premium. (Shankar and Bolton, 2004).
Taking Gap, Inc. for example, it is a specialty retailer, who enacts a three-tier price strategy, targeting three specific price and consumer markets through diverse retail formats: Old Navy (economy), Gap (middle), and Banana Republic (premium). Although Gap, Inc. retailers are specialty apparel and accessory retailers, all are distinctly positioned and priced based on a price tier. Retail formats are characterized by price point, product type, positioning, and life stages (Gap, Inc., 2004). Another example would be Levi’s, where Levi’s Signature in in the economy tier, Red Tab is in the middle tier and Levi’s Premium is in the premium tier (Author, 2005)

1.3.2 Theory of Clearance Sales

According to the Theory of Clearance Sales, sales can be categorized into 3 types: pre-season, within-season and clearance sales. The phenomenon of clearance sales is much more prominent and it arises from the unpredictability of style, color, pattern and consumers’ preferences. Since retailers are clueless about consumers’ preferences, the apparels are offered in the first period at an initial price. Once consumers’ choices are known, apparels sell out fast when consumer reservation prices exceed the initial price. On the other hand, if the consumers’ reservation prices below the initial price, the store than picks an optimal markdown price.(Pashigian, 1988)

1.3.3 Price and Consumers

Consumers also use price as an indicator of product quality because they believe market prices are determined by the forces of competitive supply and demand. They assume that a garment with a high price meets high quality standards and vice versa. Consumers use price as a cue to quality because it is visible and known. That is, prior to the purchase, price is easier to compare as opposed to the quality features and durability of the garments. When the consumer can’t readily see other differences in two identical garments, price is the vital piece of information available for use in evaluating quality (Fowler & Clodfelter, 2001).

1.4 Searching and Matching

Buyers and sellers find each other through a number of ways:

1.4.1 Trickle Down Theory

The upper class in a society is the leader of new fashion (Law, Zhang and Leung, 2004). Fashion that is adopted by the upper class will soon be imitated by each succeeding lower class until they have « trickled-down » to the lowest class (Sproles, 1981)

1.4.2 Mass Market Theory

The mass production combined with mass communications make new styles and information about new styles available simultaneously to all socioeconomic classes. Fashion diffusion has the opportunity to begin essentially the same time within each class. (Sproles, 1981).

1.4.3 Collective Selection Theory

New fashions emerge from a process of collective selection, where collective tastes are formed by many people. During this process, many new styles will compete for acceptance by consumers. The styles that are welcomed and acknowledged as fashionable will gain a competitive edge over others. Consumers’ tastes are vaguely defined initially, but the selections of innovators will give more precise statement of appropriate tastes. The designer’s prestige may also further legitimize his/her choice in adopting the new fashion (Sproles, 1981).

1.4.4 Subculture Leadership Theory

Fashion originates from different subcultures in the society (e.g. blacks, youths, blue collar workers and ethnic minorities)(Law, Zhang and Leung, 2004). Their unique style will eventually emerge; noticed by the larger population and become admired for its creativity, artistic excellence, or relevance to current lifestyles. The style then diffuses into the mass population through either the trickle-down process or mass market mechanisms (Sproles, 1981).

2 MARKET MAKERS, COMPETITION AND COOPERATION

2.1 The Retail Industry

This wiki page is focused on the fashion retail markets in US as well as Europe as those places are where the fashion capitals are found namely, Paris, London, Milan and New York. Each market has varying market makers, defined by a few large powerful actors responsible for shaping market institutions. In the global luxury fashion retail market, there are mainly three large fashion conglomerates competing with one another: LVMH, PPR and Richemont. They can be considered the market makers of the fashion retail market as they each own a substantial number of luxurious brands in the market and thus, possess power to decide and influence the rest of the fashion market.

2.2 The Market Makers

A myriad of factors define the fashion retail market, namely the interactions among fashion companies and the interaction between fashion companies and the consumer. On the surface, it may seem like there are many fashion brands competing with one another. In reality, some of the brands selling similar products, are actually owned by the same fashion company. For example, LVMH, the french holding conglomerate, owns Louis Vuitton and Fendi, both of which are luxury fashion brands.

2.2.1 LVMH

LVMH, also known as LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton, is one of the world’s largest luxury-goods company, home to around 60 luxury brands in various sectors such as fashion and leather goods, wine and spirits, perfumes and cosmetics as well as watches and jewellery. A tabulation of the amount of revenue generated by each business group within the large conglomerate is shown in Table 1 below. Also, The various luxurious brands owned by this French holding company are listed in Table 2.

Table 1: Table of revenue generated by various sectors of LVMH from Year 2007 to Year 2009

Millions of Euros Year 2007 Year 2008 Year 2009
Wines and Spirits 3,226 3,126 2,740
Fashion and Leather Goods 5,628 6,010 6,302
Perfumes and Cosmetics 2,731 2,868 2,741
Watches and Jewellery 833 879 764
Selective Retailing 4,164 4,376 4,533
Other activities and eliminations (101) (66) (27)
Total 16,481 17,193 17,053

Source:LVMH Annual Report 2009 (accessed on 8 April 2010)

Table 2: Table of brands from various sectors under LVMH

Wines and Spirits
·         Moët et Chandon
·         Dom Pérignon
·         Krug
·         Château d’Yquem
·         Glenmorangie
·         Belvedere Vodka
·         Chopin vodka
·         Hennessy
·         Domaine Chandon California
Fashion and Leather Goods
·         Louis Vuitton
·         Fendi
·         Donna Karan
·         Loewe
·         Marc Jacobs
·         Kenzo
·         Givenchy
·         Thomas Pink
·         Pucci
·         Berluti
·         Stefanobi
·         Rossimoda
·         Celine
Perfumes and Cosmetics
·         Parfums Christian Dior
·         Guerlain
·         Parfums Givenchy
·         Parfums Kenzo
·         Benefit
·         Make Up For Ever
·         Acqua di Parma
·         Parfums Loewe
Watches and Jewellery
·         TAG Heuer
·         Hublot
·         Zenith
·         Chaumet
·         Dior Watches
·         Fred
·         De Beers
Selective Retailing
·         DFS
·         Miami Cruiseline
·         Sephora
·         Le Bon Marche

Source: LVMH Annual Report 2009 (accessed on 8  April 2010)

2.2.2 PPR

PPR is a French multinational conglomerate, not too far behind LVMH in the fashion market. It was formerly called Pinault-Printemps-Redoute, but was shorterned to PPR on 18 May 2005. It has 5 main subsidaries under its company name: Fnac, Redcats Group, Conforama, Puma and Gucci Group.The following table reveals the breakdown by revenue generated by the various subsidaries in year 2009:

Table 3: Table of revenue generated by various subsidaries of PPR in year 2009

Millions of Euros Year 2007 Year 2008 Year 2009
Fnac 4,583.5 4,587 4,375
Redcats Group 3,764.5 3,699 3,386
Conforama 3,313 3,168 2,928
Puma 1,717.6 2,524 2,461
Gucci Group 2,175.4 3,380 3,390
Total 15,554 17,358 16,540

Source: PPR Annual Report 2007PPR Annual Report 2008 and PPR Official Website (accessed 8 April 2010)

Gucci Group is the luxury good subsidary, whereby global fashion brands such as Gucci, Bottega Veneta and Yves Saint Laurent pave the way for younger brands such as Balenciaga, Alexander McQueen, Stella McCartney, Boucheron and Sergio Rossi. In year 2009, €3,390 million of revenue was generated by the Gucci Group. The following piechart obtained from PPR’s official website itself reveals the breakdown of revenue by brand in year 2009:

Figure 4: Piechart of breakdown of revenue by brand of Gucci Group of PPR in year 2009 

Source: PPR official website (accessed on 8 April 2010)

2.2.3 Richemont

Richemont is a Swiss luxury goods company founded in 1988, with five key areas: jewellery, watches, writing instruments, leather and accessories, and clothing. It is the third largest luxury good international conglomerate, trailing behind LVMH and PPR. The following shows the amount of sales generated by various maisons of Richemont.

Table 4: Table of sales generated by various maisons of Richemont from year 2007 to year 2009

Millions of Euros Year 2007 Year 2008 Year 2009
Jewellery 2,435 2,657 2,762
Specialist Watchmakers 1,203 1,378 1,437
Writing Instruments 585 625 587
Leather and Accessories 307 309 294
Fashion and Accessories 297 321 338
Total 4,827 5,290 5,418

Source: Richemont Annual Report 2009 (accessed on 8 April 2010)

Table 5: Table of brands from various maisons under Richemont

Jewellery
  • Cartier
  • Van Cleef & Arpels
Specialist Watchmakers
  • Piaget
  • A. Lange & Sohne
  • Jaeger-LeCoultre
  • Vacheron Constantin
  • Officine Panerai
  • International Watch Co. Schaffhausen (IWC Schaffhausen)
  • Baume & Mercier
  • Manufacture Roger Dubuis
  • Ralph Lauren Timepieces
Writing Instruments
  • Montblanc
Leather and Accessories
  • Dunhill (London)
  • Lancel (Paris)
Fashion and Accessories
  • Chloe
  • Alaia (Paris)
  • Shanghai Tang
  • Purdey

Source: Richemont Annual Report 2009 (accessed on 8 April 2010)

Almost half of Richemont’s main revenue stems from the sales of specialised watchmaking, however, a portion of its revenue is generated from fashion and accessories as well. Brands such as Dunhill, Lancel, Chloe and Shanghai Tang are the more famous fashion brands with outlets available in many parts of the world.

2.2.4 Consumers

The retailers seem to have the most power in defining the market as they possess the power to market goods at prices desirable to them. However, the market price is in fact also determined by consumers. According to basic economic theory, the price of a good is determined by the demand by consumers and supply of the good by the producers in the economy. (J. F. Muth, 1961) Especially for the fashion retail market, fashion trends are forecasted by analysing results of consumer’s emotions towards the previous trend. (H.S Cho et. al., 2005) Hence, consumers do play a vital role in forming the fashion retail market as well.

2.3 Competition and Cooperation

2.3.1 Diversification

One method in which fashion companies compete with one another is through diversification. In order to gain a larger market share, a company may set up different kinds of shops, retailing clothings of varying prices to target different groups of consumers. The fashion retail industry may be segregated into three tiers: economy, middle market or premium, depending on the range of prices of the fashion piece. Fashion companies have various strategies to attract consumers to purchase their products. For example, American Apparel, though at the lower end of the price scale, generate revenue by mass production of designs which are in the current trend. On the other hand, premium fashion brands such as Prada has already established classic designs of fashion products such as the handbags, which are targeted at less price-sensitive consumers who do not mind paying more to purchase a product early in the season. (G.M. Allenby et. al., 1996)

Some large companies diversify to tap into all three markets in order to capture different market shares. Also, fashion companies may choose to diversify into specific fashion apparels such as atheletic apparels, fashion accessories such as handbags, shoes etc. One good example is Gap Inc., which has 5 different brands under its company’s name: GAP, Banana Republic, Old Navy, Piperlime and Athleta. Old Navy is targetted at the economy price-tiered market, GAP is targetted at the middle-market price-tiered market while Banana Republic is targetted at the premium price-tiered market. Piperlime is an online shop managed by Gap Inc. which retails shoes and handbags of other brands while Athleta is a brand specially targetted at women atheletic sportswear. (Gap Inc., 2010) 
Figure 5: Photo collage of retail stores of two brands, GAP and Banana Republic, both owned by Gap Inc. (Photo courtesy of Gap Inc. )

2.3.2 Extrapolating the trend

Companies have a group of designers to plan, nearly half a year ahead, what the trend for the next season will be. Fashion pieces designed, will be modelled down a runway at fashion shows typically held at fashion hubs around the world to showcase the new collection. The biggest fashion weeks are held regularly according to the seasons in the top fashion capitals in the world, namely Paris, London, Milan and New York. (British Fashion Council, 2008) These centralised fashion shows are meant to showcase the new collection to the press, which will subsequently be disseminated to the public through the media, thus setting fashion trends and fashion statements through such avenues. (N. M. Rantisi, 2001)

Figure 6 : A photo collage of Gucci Spring Fashion Week in Milan, 2010 (Photo taken from Coutorture.com )

2.3.3 Branding and Advertising

According to John Durrel (1998), branding represents “a consistency of quality and meaning associated with a designer’s collections that will carry over from year to year”. Despite changes in design from one season to the next, these changes in fact reinforce the particular company’s image. (N. M. Rantisi, 2001) For example, most Louis Vuitton fashion accessories like their handbags and purses would carry its logo, which represents not only the brand, but also the prestige attached to the luxury brand. Thus, many fashion companies in the industry use advertising to appeal to selective rather than primary buying motives. (W. R. Smith, 1956) 
Figure 7: Photo collage of two different designs of Louis Vuitton accessories, the former being the classic design while the latter being one of the modern designs. (Photos courtesy of [Style.com] )

2.3.4 Vertical Integration

Some of the bigger fashion companies are vertically integrated with their line of production so as to be able to shortern production cycle and be able to adapt to the current demand as well as customer satisfaction. (J. Richardson, 1996) In rapidly changing and highly competitive industries such as the fashion retail market where products have short product life and differentiation advantages may be quickly imitated, it is important for fashion companies to be sensitive to changes in fashion trends and to be able to swiftly change their line of production when the need arises. This concept is called Quick Response,a philosophy in management which refers to a mode of operation for the wntire supple chains that produce consumer products so that customers receive the products they want in the desired timeframe. (S. Daskalaki, n.d.)


Figure 8: Photo Collage of the American Apparel factory located in Los Angeles (left) and one of the many American Apparel retail stores (right) available in many parts of the world such as United States, Austria, Belgium, Israel, Italy, Ireland, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Switzerland, China, Germany, Canada, France, Sweden, Mexico, United Kingdom, Brazil and Australia. (Photo courtesy of Foxnews.com)

One good example to illustrate this point is American Apparel, one of the largest apparel wholesalers in the United States. This company has integrated manufacturing, distribution and retail together, with every step of the process done in-house and not replying on outsourcing. From designing and marketing, fabric storage to warehouse distribution and retail, all of it is owned by American Apparel.

2.3.5 Horizontal Integration

One of the methods of competing with other fashion companies would either be to cooperate with them and form an alliance, or to take over smaller firms, a process known as acquisition.One good example would be PPR, one of the fashion conglomerates in the fashion retail market. In 1999, PPR bought over 42% of the Gucci group, entering the luxury goods sector. Since then, PPR has slowly acquired more of the shares such that it currently holds 99.4% of stakes of the Gucci Group. Also, in 2007, the fashion conglomerate acquired 62.1% stake in Puma, one of the world leader in sports lifestyle. (PPR, 2010)

2.3.6 Media

One of the most powerful tool to enhance its brand image and raise awareness of one’s fashion brand is through mass media. From fashion magazines such as Vogue, to television channels dedicated only to fashion such as FTV.com, it can be seen that media plays an important role in promoting one’s fashion brand or company. At fashion shows held around the world in fashion hubs, the press is present to document the release of the newest collection from various fashion brands. Through newspapers, fashion magazines and even fashion websites, the new season’s fashion trend is being broadcasted to millions of people theough these media.

Fashion companies also collaborate with media artistes to enhance its brand image, through endoresements and  advertisments. For example, in 2009 for their spring/summer collection, Louis Vuitton engaged Madonna, the pop music icon to be featured on their advertisments together with their products. (LVMH, 2009)

Figure 9: Two Louis Vuitton advertisements featuring Madonna from LV/s Spring/Summer Collection 2009 (Photos courtesy of Cyana.tv )

2.3.7 Factory Outlets

Usually, retail stores such as Prada clear the stocks of past seasons or unsold goods through the factory outlets where prices of goods will be decreased by a significant percentage. There is an increasing trend of companies to use this method to raise awareness of their brands as consumers nowadays would not mind obtaining a branded good, even if it was past the season, at a lower price. For example, brands like Tommy Hilfilger, Puma and United Colours of Benetton set up factory outlets in India to suit economic needs of price-conscious consumers by selling their goods at lower prices. (Chaudhary, 2008)

3 EFFECTS OF FASHION ON CONSUMERS AND CONSUMPTION

The consumption of fashion can be traced all the way back to the 16thand 17th Century Europe and took off amongst the European nobility. Queen Elizabeth I used the dramatic spectacle of fashion as a display of governmental power. She also forced competition between the nobility by removing them from their locality where they were clearly superior, forcing them to attend the London Court where they had to compete with equals. In the past, commodities were chosen because of their ability to appreciate in value as time passed with the idea that they would be passed down to succeeding generations as inheritances, while newness and novelty were seen as marks of commonness. However, the Elizabethan noblemen now began to spend less on his family and began to spend more to secure his place in this new social competition. Goods selected as markers in a social competition require very different characteristics than those purchased to be handed down. Now, consumers focus on the ability of the commodity to express the individuality of the consumers, his/her difference from others of the same social rank. By the 17thand 18th Century, this competitive consumption spread beyond the London Court to create new institutions and lay the foundation of consumer culture.

Figure 10: Elizabethan fashion during the late 1500s to early 1600s.« Traditional hierarchy of taste was a product merely of snobbery and the desire for distinction… »

Elizabeth Wilson ‘Adorned in dreams: fashion and modernity’

Individuals began to assume the role of a consumer in the economy. Consumers interpret fashion and use it to create personalised consumption meanings. Western fashion patterns, which are categorized by novelty, constant renewing and updating, infused with advertising and mass media is considered an important basis of the ideology of consumption. Consumers actively combine and adapt culturally established fashion discourses to fit the conditions of their daily life, using fashion discourses to forge self defining social distinctions and boundaries. They use fashion to construct narratives of personal history, and interpret the interpersonal dynamics of their social sphere, helping us to understand their relationship to the consumer culture.

The fashion phenomenon has raised many issues:

1)      Morality of consumerism

2)      The conditions of self worth

3)      The pursuit of individuality

4)      The relation of appearance

5)      Character traits

6)      The dynamics of social relationships

7)      Reinforcing of gender roles

8)      Standards of taste

9)      Economic inequality and

10)   Social class standing.

3.1 Stigmatizing and Stereotyping

Fashion affects the way people perceive each other.  We perceive a person’s personality through the fashion or the style that one may have. Fashion acts as a symbolic representation of one’s gender, culture and even a person’s characteristics, creating stigma and stereotyping of a person background, etc. For example, it is stereotypical to think that Indian women wear saris, while Scottish men wear kilts.  

Figure 11: Indian women are often typically portrayed as wearing saris (right) while Scottish men are known for wearing kilts (left)

Fashion intertwines into the consumers’ self-identities and social relationships. In Craig J. Thompson and Diana L. Haytko’s article, “Speaking of Fashion: Consumer’s Uses of Fashion Discourses and the Appropriation of Countervailing Culture Meaning”, one sees that people judge and have perceptions of others through others’ fashion and style.  Through the right fashion and style, it may represent creativity, organization, competence and conscientiousness, while the outdated fashion or wrong style may represent “the undesirable…broader implication of not being able to effectively put one’s life together”.

The searching and matching in certain organizations such as fashion industries depend greatly on the selling of an individual’s appearance and ‘first impressions’. Employment becomes intertwined with the bias due to stereotyping. Skill sets are placed second place to one’s ability to ‘speak’ through their physical appearance. There is a dependency of the society on fashion to create distinctions and justify class division.

« Adornment… which gathers the personality’s … radiance as if in a focal point, allows the mere having the person to become a visible quality of its being. And this is so, not although adornment is superfluous, but because it is… This very accentuation of personality, however, is achieved by means of an impersonal trait… [for] style is always something general. It brings the contents of personal life and activity to form shared by many and accessible to many. »Georg Simmel ‘Adornment’

3.1.1 A divide between the people

Fashion emphasises on the divide between classes in a society, reinforcing class stratification. It acts as a statement of wealth and prestige, or the lack thereof. The ownership of labels and branding of products serves as distinguishing markers of social economic class. For example, the upper class will naturally seek to establish their wealth and social standing through donning haute couture or using high-end products while the lower classes make do with mass produced items and street fashion.

The creation of new social classes, the subcultures and/or countercultures, is apparently evident through fashion and style. Subcultures and countercultures adhere to a distinctive set of values, norms and practices within a larger culture that may oppose the dominant culture. Fashion works to distinguish social circles, class status(mainly based on socio-economic status) and subcultures. For instance, hip hop fashion with its trademark heavy gold or bling-bling jewelleries, sneakers, baggy pants and more importantly, attitudes have been long established and easily recognizable throughout the world.  

Figure 12: The Hiphop fashion has been known to have bling-bling, oversized shades and baggy pants. (Photos courtesy of popsugar.com )

It becomes relatively easy to identify some subcultures’ in a society through their styles such as punk, grunge or hip hop as soon as they have become widely known and as long as they are used consistently, but there are no dictionaries in the language of fashion. As such, fashion puts a society’s social hierarchy on display when it makes it easy for one to identify a person’s social background or social culture through one’s dressing. It was once easy to judge, by the quality and amount of fabric or the amount of labour-intensive lace and embroidery, the social status of a person, which only knew the dimensions of « up » or « down ». However nowadays there are many more dimensions to consider, e.g. progressive or conservative, high or low educational level, high or low ecological awareness and more. They all seek expression through consumer goods.

3.1.2 Reflects expectations that come along with occupational status and prestige

3.1.2.1 Expectations

Fashion reflects expectations that come along with occupational status and prestige. Different occupations demand different fashion style. High end job position holders are expected to possess designer products as a reflection and a symbol of their power and prestige. For example, the fashion that a CEO has is immensely different from that of a road sweeper. The CEO, being at the top of the occupation ladder, would be expected to wear branded apparels and drive high-end cars, while a road sweeper, being at the bottom of the occupation ladder, would not be expected to possess anything fashionable or stylish to reflect his wealth and status. Fashion sells the ideals on what a CEO should wear and possess. It is rare to find fashion defining dressing ideals of a road sweeper. More importantly, with the advent of the World Wide Web, one can easily google outfits suitable for their job scope. Mass media is extremely important in the definition of job appropriate attire.For instance, the teaching profession .

Figure 13: Formal office attire (Photos courtesy of Victoria’s Secret )

3.1.2.2 Fashion as a reflection of job scopes and titles

By fulfilling expectations of one’s job, fashion is constantly used an identification of job scopes purely through what we observe and interpret from one’s attire.

 

“A Hollywood star flaunts her beauty at the Oscar ceremony, clad in an exiguous gown while the German graphic artist Jeanne Mammen used dress to disappear in Weimar Berlin to enjoy the freedom of being overlooked.”

3.1.3 Fashion blurring the line…


Figures 14 & 15 : On the runway: Men exude feminity, soft features along with softer fabrics such as satin, and feminine colours, while females take on the structured and masculine tailoring. (Photo courtesy of imyouare.com and coutorture.com )

While fashion acts as a representation of gender and culture everywhere and acts as a divide for social spaces, it subtly advocates equality within gender and sexuality. In the past, men’s fashion was masculine with dark colour shades like black or dark shades of grey. The 20th Century ushered a new era of fashion for females and males. As fashion evolved, we see the blurring of the line between the strict male-female fashion styles. Before the 20th Century, females were expected to wear dresses and skirts as a symbol of their being female, and wearing pants or suits was unthinkable. The 1960s Women’s Liberation in the United States of America saw, for the first time in American history, the giving of women the freedom to dress as they had never been able to before. Since then, we have witnessed the evolution of fashion for not only females but for males as well.

For example, in the 21st Century, we see the fusion of female and male fashion styles together, with men’s fashion adopting some characteristics of the women’s fashion, and vice versa. Now, we see tote bags are not only fashionable in the women’s fashion sphere, but also in the men’s fashion sphere as well; while we see the rise in popularity of women’s pants suits.

3.2 Fusion of Western and Asian Culture in Fashion

Fashion has permeated from the West into Asian culture as early as the 19th Century when Japan began to emulate Western fashion. Since then, western fashion has integrated itself together with Asian culture and fashion to form what is now called street fashion in several Asian countries, like Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. In Japan, Western brands like American brand Abercrombie & Fitch and Swedish fast fashion brand H&M have become popular among aspiring American-preppy Japanese teens as Abercrombie & Fitch opens its first flagship store just steps away from H&M in Ginza, Japan’s upscale shopping district. The fusion of Western culture with Asian culture can be seen in several Japanese street fashion brands such as Uniqlo, A Bathing Ape and Comme des Garçons. These Japanese street fashion brands have reached international success, with the most popular brands having flagship stores in the West. Western fashion has also influenced Indian high fashion culture, with the Indian traditional attire and fashion taking the backseat.

Figures 16 and 17: Japanese street fashion (left) and Korean street fashion (right) (Photos courtesy of tokyofashion.com and flickr.com )

3.3 Fashion Deviance

Over the years, we see the rise in a different sort of fashion all together—the idolising of fashion deviant behaviour. The portrayal of fashion-deviance has been gaining popularity with the rise in the mass media. Avant-garde fashion is fashion that is seen as experimental fashion or innovative fashion, and one of the most prominent avant-garde fashion designers is French haute couture fashion designer, Jean-Paul Gaultier. Gaultier has been known for using unique looking models in his fashion shows of all different shapes, sizes and ages. In Interviewhe explained that, “I have never really cared about what fashion’s ideal was. There are different kinds of beauty and I always try to show that.” 

Figure 18: Avant-garde fashion being a form of fashion deviance (Photo courtesy of frillr.com )

Fashion deviance is not only seen in famous fashion designers but also in celebrities such as Lady Gaga, who is famous for her outrageous sense of dressing and her avant-garde music style. Such fashion deviance is a way of portrayal of one’s own personality through originality and individuality. Furthermore, such deviant fashion behaviour serves as effective marketing strategy with free publicity due to the different and outrageous style that will capture people’s attention. 

Figure 19: Pop icon, Lady Gaga, who is famous for her outrageous sense of dressing and avant-garde music style, at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards (Photo courtesy of55secretstreet.typepad.com )

Fashion deviance emphasises on uniformity and individuality simultaneously. Fashion reinforces social solidarity and imposes social group norms, while the deviations are usually experienced as shocking or disturbing. People incorporate moral implications of clothes into their social consciousness such that our language reflects it: words such as ‘right’, ‘good’, ‘fashionista’ and ‘chic’ are used to express approval of clothes while words such as ‘shabby’ and ‘slipshod’ are used to express disapproval. To seek approval among one’s peers, people follow trends, and use products that reflect the current trends respectively. However, to prevent themselves from looking exactly the same as the person beside them, accessories become essential in the pursuit of individuality. Individuals may conform to the now social norm, such as dressing mannerisms (e.g.: leggings or skinny jeans), but they may accessorise to define and bring forth their own personal styles, such as boho-chic, urban, mod, metrosexual, avant-garde, etc.

 

« To dress fashionably is both to stand out and to merge with the crowd, to lay claim to the exclusive and to follow the herd. »

 

3.4 Creation of Consumer Culture

Consumer culture or consumerism, defined by Webster’s dictionary, is “the movement seeking to protect and inform consumers by requiring such practices as honest packaging and advertising, product guarantees, and improved safety standards”, or “the theory that a progressively greater consumption of goods is economically beneficial”.

Fashion creates a desire for ownership. Coupled with mass media and advertising, market makers sell lifestyles and consumers consume such products and lifestyles in hope for upward mobility in the social hierarchy. This creates a culture of hedonism through the impression that one can purchase a status and in turn, ‘happiness’. As such, this new consumer culture lays the foundations for consumption, and demand and supply, of fashion in a society.

Along with this, individuals learn how to be ‘consumers’, needing to purchase products that essential to their socio-economic status. As a result, there is a creation of consumer concepts such as ‘savings’, ‘budgeting’ and ‘overspending’, where people learn the concepts of saving, budgeting and overspending with the increase in consumption.  Fashion often starts from the fashion designers and celebrities themselves. As people have the desire to emulate celebrities who are major role models in fashion, such fashion often begins from the celebrities themselves, with people consuming products that have been endorsed, worn or used by the celebrities. More importantly, fashion provides a way for one to create an image they desire others to perceive. In this sense, fashion does not serve as an accurate tool of identifying class.

The fashion industry’s main way of advertising is through endorsements, where companies typically contract athletes or celebrities to release a written or spoken statement approving their products. Endorsements are used as promotional tools and grant the brands exposure that yiels short term benefits and long term rewards. It creates exposure for brands, positions and repositions existing brands as well as new brands. It give extensive public relations leverage and opportunities to the brands and promotes the brand appeal, hence encouraging people to buy the products and increasing the sales for the brands’ companies.

However, fashion, as they say, comes and goes and is never constant. For example, in long running TV shows like the US sitcom Friends, we see the gradual change in fashion and style in the clothes that the characters wear throughout the show. But with the ever changing trends and fashion, we see that people have to constantly buy and consume new goods and services to stay in fashion. The frequent renewal of fashion in our capitalistic society makes it an effective marketing strategy as the constant updating of ‘trends’ and the human desire to fit in keeps the fashion industry alive.

Figures 20 and 21: The tremendous fashion style difference can be seen in Season 10 (left) and Season 1 (right) of famous TV sitcom Friends (Photos courtesy ofcliqueclack.com )

Figures 22 and 23: The difference in fashion style being portrayed in two different productions of TV show Beverly Hills, 90210 in the 1990s (left) and the current production of 90210 today (right) (Photos courtesy of materialconcern.com and greenthinkers.org )
Fashion speaks Capitalism… fashion is as much a part of the dream world of capitalism as of its economy…

 

Fashion, in a sense is change. The reactions of fashion on changes in activities and life styles can be found in sports. It is unusual to see athletes today performing at high levels without the appropriate accessories and apparels designed to provide comfort and protection under extreme conditions. Specialised apparels (Nike dri-fit for sports) and accessories have been designed and made popular and essential, such as basketball shoes, tennis rackets, or golf clubs. Another example can be seen in how smart-casual outfits have become more popular with professionals, given the increasing need of socializing after work. (Hines et al). This has been a utilitarian response from fashion to society’s changes. Koenig’s neophilia can be understood as the acceptance of human beings to new things. It is at this stage where fashion finds the opportunity to change and innovate in order to satisfy people’s need to wear new things.

4 FASHION FITTING INTO THE LARGER PRODUCT WORLD

As fashion is defined as a general term for the style and custom prevalent at a given time, it is itself a very broad-based concept where any prevailing style or custom in tangible goods can be purchased. It extends its characteristics into the larger product world as for consumerism to take place; it depends highly on what is fashionable then/now. Fashion, hence, is one of the main driving forces of consumerism. Most of the revenue in the market is driven by people’s consumption of products and services that are fashionable due to their desire for acceptance by society.

4.1 Influence of Fashion into Other Industries and Markets

While fashion may be a term that is associated mostly with clothes, it has huge impact on other industries and markets, such as the Hollywood industry, digital games industry and the sports industry. 

Figure 24: The Sports industry and the Hollywood (film) industry has been greatly influenced by fashion throughout the years (Photos courtesy of thesportscorner.ca ,threadhall.wordpress.com and artsjournal.com )

4.1.1 Hollywood

Hollywood revolves around fashion. Its industry carries the expectations of their consumers to keep up with an emulate fashion trends. Hollywood celebrities are seen as representatives of fashion. Several style icons, such as Sienna Miller, Sarah Jessica Parker, Alexa Chung, Marilyn Monroe, are Hollywood celebrities who have achieved high praises for their sense of style, with many trying to emulate thier styles. Another example can be seen in the 1970s actress, Farrah Fawcett, whose hairstyle (named the « Farrah Do » or « Farrah Hair ») made her an international pop icon and her hairstyle became an international trend, with millions of young women trying to emulate her hairstyle for nearly a decade from the beginning of the 1970s to the early 1980s.

Several Hollywood actors and actresses have also been featured as the faces of famous brands over the years. Perfumes are launched with Hollywood celebrities as the spokesmodels of the products, such as Charlize Theron for Dior’s j’adore, Nicole Kidman for Chanel’s Nº 5, Anne Hathaway for Lancôme’s Magnifique and Ryan Reynolds for Hugo Boss Fragrances. Hollywood celebrities can also be found as faces of luxury brands as well, with Emma Watson for Burberry and Megan Fox fronting Armani’s underwear campaign.

Figures 25 and 26: Harry Potter’s star Emma Watson as the spokesmodel for British luxury brand, Burberry (left), while Charlize Theron is the spokesmodel for Dior’s perfume j’adore (right) (Photos courtesy of youngpoorandangry.com and piercemattiepublicrelations.com )

We have seen several Hollywood celebrities going into the fashion designing industry as well. For example, Sienna Miller has a label backed by Pepe Jeans called Twenty8Twelve, Sarah Jessica Parker has a fashion line with discount clothing chain Steven & Barry’s named Bitten, while Hilary Duff launched her own clothing line, Stuff by Hilary Duff, in March 2004 (which has since expanded into furnitures, fragrances and jewelry) and hs since co-designed a collection of special pieces with DKNY Jeaans called Femme for DKNY in 2009. Furthermore, several fashion frands have named their products after celebrities, such as Hermès’ Kelly and Birkin bags being named after famous actresses, Grace Kelly and Jane Birkin respectively.

Figure 27: The different clothing lines launched by Hollywood stars (Photos courtesy of twenty8twelve.com , surrealistlovescene.wordpress and girl.com.au )

The Hollywood industry has been making films and these films have both influenced the fashion industry as well as been influenced by the fashion industry. Hollywood films have been glamorised by fashion as seen in many sitcoms and movies where actors don on newly released or limited edition accessories and apparels. For example, the movie, Legally Blonde II featured extensively the brand Jimmy Choo, while Le Divorce featured Hermès in the movie. Popular TV show, Sex and the City also promoted both Jimmy Choo and Manolo Blahnik.

Figure 28: Movies like Legally Blonde 2 and Le Divorce features brands like Jimmy Choo and Hermès extensively (Photos courtesy of 6×4.es andelmundodepeliculas.org )

Famed pioneering French fashion designer Coco Chanel’s life was also made into several biopic over the years, the most recent one being entitled Coco avant Chanel(French title) or Coco Before Chanel (English title). The film was nominated for four BAFTA Awards, three European Film Awards, six César Awards and the Academy Award for Best Costume Design. The production of Coco Before Chanel shows how pioneers of fashion (in relation to Coco Chanel) are givne a status that makes them worthy of having their lives documneted. It symbolises how far fashion has come and its establishment of its power, as well as its importance and influence in Hollywood.

Figure 29: The biopic, Coco Before Chanel, documents famed pioneer French fashion designer, Coco Chanel’s life (Photo courtesy of filmmofilia.com )

Award ceremonies, such as the Academy Awards (also known as the Oscars), Emmy Awards (for Television) and BAFTA Awards, have an award category for Best Costume Deisgn. Other film award shows like MTV Movie Awards (MMAs) have an award category for Best Dressed, although MTV Movie Awards retired the category after the 2002 MMAs. This shows the influence of style and fashion in films and TV shows in not only Hollywood but in the film industry as a whole.

Figure 30: Several fashion magazines follows and offer tips on how to emulate the latest style and fashion (Photos courtesy of the various magazine covers)

Fashion magazines, such as Harper’s BazaarVogueInStyleFashion MagazineElle and Marie Claire, all expose the public to fashion and style. They follow trends set by celebrities or the latest fashion styles by fashion designers. TV stations like The Style Network, Fashion TV and E! Entertainment, have programmes that cater mainly to fashion and style, and showcases fashions and styles of Hollywood celebrities. For example, E! Entertainment has a segment called Fashion Police, where they showcase celebrities’ fashion Dos and Don’ts. Also, TV programmes like 90210 and Gossip Girl have incorporated fashion into the shows, with websites devoted to teaching people how to emulate the style and fashion on the TV shows. Reality TV shows like Project Runway and America’s Next Top Model also reiterate the importance of fashion and never fail to raise famous quotes by established fashion market makers.

Figures 31 and 32: Both TV shows 90210 and Gossip Girl incorporate the latest fashion and style (Photos courtesy of divxturka and ceylanoloji.com )

« Fashions fade, style is eternal. »

Yves Saint Laurent, 1940

« A girl should be two things: classy and fabulous. »

Coco Chanel

4.1.2 Digital Games Industry 

With the advanced technology, we see the influence of fashion in the digital games industry with increase number of games that incorporates fashion into the games. One example would be that of the 2004 strategic life simulation video game, The Sims 2The Sims 2 had expansion packs that had fashion included in it, such as Glamour Life StuffTeen Style StuffIkea Home Stuff and H&M Fashion Stuff. Also, we see fashion being an influence in several other video games, such as Barbie Fashion Show andImagine: Fashion Designer, a game designed for the Nintendo DS, where the players get to design clothes or assembling outfits. Such games sell and reinforce ideas of how individuals of different genders should dress. Latest versions of the game even include styles that are desirable and in fashion (such as leggings and owning a handphone).

Figure 33: The different expansion stuff pack offered by EA for the strategic life simulation video game, The Sims 2, includes fashion (Photo courtesy of thesims2.com )

4.1.3 Sports

Fashion has been integrated into sports. Athletes have become a fashion icon as well as a sports icon. This can be evidently seen in The English Premier League (EPL) as well as the National Basketball Association (NBA) Their images are remodelled to look fashionable, and their popularity can lead to the popularity of the team they are playing for. Also, when a team is on a winning streak, the team will gain popularity and becomes ‘fashionable’ to support. Also, we see sport stars endorsing products that are popular and fashionable, such as Coca-Cola and Gillette.

Figure 34: Sportsmen like Swiss tennis star Roger Federer and French soccer champion Thierry Henry and golf phenomenon Tiger Woods (Photo courtesy ofthisislondon.co.uk )

We also see athletes going into fashion design, wiith famous NBA basketballer, Miami Heat guard Dwayne Wade designing the a limited edition of the T-Mobile Sidekick3, named the Sidekick3 D-Wade edition, released in 2007 for a limited time only. Another famous basketballer, Michael Jordan has also become a prominant figure in the sport wear fashion. Nike has created a signature shoe for him, called the Air Jordan , and subsequently spun off the Jordan line into its own brand entitled the « Jordan Brand » that features an impressive list of athletes and celebrities as endorsers.

Figures 35 and 36: NBA basketballer Dwayne Wade’s special edition of the T-Mobile Sidekick3 (left) and the logo of Nike’s Air Jordan’s Jumpman logo to promote the shoes (right) (Photo courtesy of t

One obvious display of the integration of fashion into sports can be seen on the courts of Wimbledon. World renowned tennis players such as Roger Federer, Maria Sharapova as well as the William sisters bring runway fashion on to the courts. Their outfits are clearly influenced by current prevalent trends, this includes their warm-up and match attire. For instance, from the figure below, Sharapova (on the left) dons a tuxedo-inspired outfit and Serena (3rd from left), a trench coat as warm-up attire, while John McEnroe (on the right) dons an afro and short shorts which was considered stylish in his time. From here we can see fashion integrating in to the sporting sphere.

Figure 37: (from left to right) Maria Sharapova, Roger Federer, Serena Williams, Venus Williams and John McEnroe (Pictures courtesy of smh.com.au and auntiefashion)

 

4.2 Integration of Fashion into Other Markets and Industries

4.2.1 Complementary Products

We see the influence of fashion on several complementary products, such as cell phones and automobiles.

4.2.1.1 Cell phones

In the recent years, there have been several tie-ups between luxury fashion brands and cell phone manufacturers. One of the most popular one being the tie-ups between LG Electronics and Prada, creating the LG Prada touchscreen mobile phone. Others include a tie-up between Samsung and Giorgio Armani, named Samsung Armani. Also recently, fashion label Versace announced on January 19, 2010, that it’ll be designing and releasing a Versace-branded cell phone in spring of 2010. 

Figure 38: Cellphone manufacturers tie up with luxury brands, such as Prada with LG (left) and Giorgio Armani with Samsung (right) (Photo courtesy ofcameraphonesplaza and q80s.com )

4.2.1.2 Automobiles 

Fashion can be seen evidently in automobiles as well, and has always been around since the 1970s. In 1972 and 1973, Gucci paired up with American Motors Corporation (AMC) to produce the AMC Hornet Compact “Sportabout” station wagon that became one of the first American cars to offer special luxury trim package created by a fashion designer. Ford Motor Company’s Lincoln Town Cars also offered Emilio Pucci, Bill Blass, Gianni Versace, Hubert de Givenchy and Valentino designer editions during the 1970s and the 1980s. More recently in 2006 is the Lamborghini Murciélago LP640 Versace edition that became the very first ever designer car, with only twenty black and white cars featuring two-tone black and white trim inside and out, with interiors finished in custom Versace leather, along with Gianni Versace logo plaque. Twenty black and white Lamborghini LP640 Murciélago Versace Roadsters were produced as well. In 2009, Jinyoung Jo, a talented car designer at Hong-ik University, South Korea, created a Chanel Fiole concept car, branded with the name of famed French luxury brand.

Figures 39 and 40: The AMC Hornet was one of the first American cars to have a tie up with a luxury fashion brand to offer special luxury trim package created by a fashion designer (right), while Chanel comes out with a concept car (left) (Photo courtesy of wallpapercar.info and gucci.webklik.nl )

Figure 41: The Lamborghini Murciélago LP640 Versace edition has a limited twenty pieces (Photos courtesy of sportscarforum.com ) 

5 MARKET SIZE, ECONOMY AND OPERATIONS

The global fashion apparel industry is one of the most important sectors of the economy in terms of investment, revenue, trade and employment generation all over the world.

5.1 Operation of the fashion retail industry fitting into the larger economy

An economy is made up of market exchanges which consists of market, actors and products. Operations of the fashion retail industry include activities related to the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. To look at how the fashion retail industry fit into the larger economy, we will discuss about the industry’s participation in the various markets, namely consumer goods markets, industrial markets, business service, and labor market.

5.1.1 Consumer Goods Market

It is a market whereby a seller, typically an organizational actor sells products, a major component of which is a physical good, to buyers, which are typically individual consumers who typically buy products to consume them, rather that to resell them. This is the consumption whereby the consumer consumes the goods produced by the fashion retail industry, where the various retail shops sells their apparels, accessories and shoes to the buyers in the market, where the buyers consumes the good and not sell it to another party. Such shops are usually located in shopping malls and at times online shopping, from the websites of various major brands to no-brand shops that functions on a smaller scale. Such websites are such as http://www.shabbylaneshops.com. The layout of this online shop actually look like the layout of a real shopping mall and it provides greater convenience to consumers as they can purchase their items online without stepping out of their homes. Before consumers can purchase the products, the goods have to be produced, this leads us to the industrial market.

 

Figure 42: Images of shabby lane shops, Hungary shops and Raffles City (Photos courtesy of ourmilkmoney.com),http://www.destination360.com/europe/hungary/shoppingdestination360.com ) and travelover.wordpress.com )

5.1.2 Industrial market

Both the buyer and the seller are organizational actors. Products consists of physical goods and services and are typically not bought for individual consumption but for their role in further creation of a product. Manufacturers are mainly the buyers in this industry and the sellers are the ones selling the raw materials. Raw materials are require to produce apparels and accessories, such as textiles. This is the production part of the fashion retail industry, which is the first step in almost all the products in the fashion retail industry. The largest apparel manufacturers and exporters were countries from the Asia-Pacific region such as China, India and Thailand. The other major apparel manufacturing nations were USA, Italy, Germany and Mexico.  In the fashion retail industry, production is almost the most important process in the industry, without production, there will be no goods produced.

  

Figure 43: Images of materials used for production of fashion pieces such as beads, thread and textiles (Photos coutesy of wholesale-contacts.com ,timetobleed.comand yufuku.net )

5.1.3 Business Service Market

The business service market is whereby both the buyer and the seller are organizational actors. Products consist of services such as marketing and advertising. In the fashion industry today, large companies and brands dominate the industry. A new brand that just sprouted into the market will not turn famous overnight, therefore the importance of marketing and advertising, which is the distribution part of the industry. There are various channels in which the apparels can be distributed such as through shopping malls and online shops. As we can see from table 6, distribution is largely through brick and mortar, occupying a total of 92.9% market share. Distributing in the different channels brings about greater exposure of their products. Besides the channels mentioned, other popular channels are such as television advertisements, billboards and online websites.

Table 6: Distribution of sales in US

 Category Sales US$ Billion Market Share (%)
Brick and Mortar 169.256 92.9
Catalog 7.177 3.9
Online/ Internet 5,873 3.2
Total 182.306 100.00

Source: Retail industry information by Barbara Farfan (about.com)

 

Figure 44: Images of advertisements of Marc Jacob and Dolce & Gabbana ( Photos courtesy of wordpress.com and fanpop.com)

5.1.4 Labor Market

This market mainly consists of individual who sell their labor to other actors typically the organizations. As we can see from the Industrial market, labor is required, to manufacture the goods. Manufacturing in the fashion retail industry puts labor, capital and land together, using these inputs to create output for the economy by producing the final product. The manufacturing sector creates jobs, therefore the need for labor which is offered by individuals from the labor market. Even from the consumer market, retail shops need people to sell their goods. The business service markets needs people to promote and advertise for their products. Such people required are the demand for labor, which are then matched by the individuals for the labor market.

5.2 Size of the market

Like most retail industry, the size of the fashion retail industry is determined through the amount of sales or transaction in a year. The larger the amount of transaction, the larger the industry.

According to the Census Bureau, the total sales in the US retail industry in 2008 is $4.475 trillion. Total sales of the top ten companies in the global retail industry (6 of which is from US and 4 from Europe) is $978.5 billion in 2007, according to international consulting group, Deloitte. Retailing is the primary driver of the global economy, making such large sums of sales annually.

5.3 Growth of the market and relations to overall economic growth and dynamics

Total sales for the U.S. retail industry declined just 0.1% overall in 2008 as from 2007, according to the Census Bureau, to $4.475 trillion. Retail industry sales declined each of the last six months of 2008. Even though the U.S. is still the most powerful economy in the world it is showing signs of decay.

Using the input-output model, economic growth can be defined as an increase in outputs. Economic growth as « marketization » is an increase in the amount and scope of monetary transaction. Therefore economic growth can be defined as an increase in outputs or sales. Economic dynamics is changes in an economic system over time, particularly those reflected in the behavior of markets, businesses, and the general economy.

According to the US Department of Labor, the number of people working in the US retail industry dropped from 15.5 million in Q4 2007 to 15.3 million as of May, 2008. A decline in employment rate means lesser labor input, a decrease in input also means decreasing output, which meant that economic growth is negative.

The retail industry is US no. 1 growing industry, assuming that since the fashion retail is the top growing and largest in the retail industry, it should have the highest influence on economic growth of the US. A decrease in employment in the US retail industry reflects a decrease in GDP and therefore a slower or negative economic growth year 2007 to 2008. US is the most powerful economy in the world, therefore the performance of its economy will affect the rest of the world adversely as well. A slower economic growth in US will meant a slower economic growth globally as well.

6. REGULATIONS

6.1 Economic Regulations

Economic regulations in the fashion retail industry are mainly based on the policies of anti-trust laws, which prohibits anti-competitive behavior and disadvantage business practices. Antitrust laws are designed to encourage competition in the marketplace (Arthur Sullivan et. al., 2003) and prevent market failure. Many countries, mainly the US and European Union, have anti-trust laws, with the latter having provisions under the Treaty of Rome to maintain fair competition.

6.1.1Types of Anti-trust Laws

1. Robinson-Patman Act
2. Clayton Antitrust Act
3. Sherman Antitrust Act
4. Hart-Scott-Rodino Act
5. Federal Trade Commission Act

6.1.2 Types of Anti-Trust Violations

Two types of anti-trust violations are of most concern in this industry, mainly predatory pricing and buyer power.

6.1.2.1 Predatory Pricing

Predatory pricing occurs when a company sells its products below its own cost price, taking a temporary loss so as to drive competitors out of business and achieve a dominant market position. Independent retailers are especially vulnerable, due to the lack of financial reserves to withstand a sustained predatory pricing assault, while their competitors can operate individual outlets at a loss indefinitely.

6.1.2.2 Buyer Power

Buyer power is the ability of big retailers to use their clout to bully suppliers into providing special discounts and favorable terms that are not made available to local businesses.

6.1.3 Importance of Anti-Trust Laws

Anti-trust laws were implemented to prevent the concentrations of wealth in the hands of very few through trusts and monopolies. Such trusts and monopolies erased normal market competition and produced undesirable controls on prices. Antitrust laws were formed to prevent trusts and monopolies from creating restrictions on trade which reduced competition. Orthodox economists like Richard Whish fully acknowledge that perfect competition is seldom observed in the real world, and so aim for what is called « workable competition (Richard Whish, 2004). By using the law, it controls market operations where it can.

6.2 Social Issues and Implemented Regulations

Over the years, the fashion retail industry have also faced many social issues over the production of its goods. Only in recent times, organizations like the United Nations, governments and campaign groups are stepping up their laws and regulations for producers in order to provide a better environment, mainly for the garment workers.

6.2.1 Issues in The Fashion Retail Industry

6.2.1.1 First-world or Third-world?

Whether the market is regulated and/or influenced by the state depends on the development of countries; First-world countries such as USA, UK, etc and Third-world countries such as India, Bangladesh, China, etc. In terms of production in the fashion retail market, garment workers in developing countries have continued to suffer under harmful conditions which demand repetitive manual labor. Mass-produced clothing is often typified by lack of benefits, long working hours and worker representation. While most examples of such conditions are found in third-world countries, clothes made in more industrialized countries may also be manufactured similarly, often employing illegal immigrants. This is mainly due to the drive of these immigrants seeking new economic opportunities and better livelihood at the expense of exploitation (Mark Patrick Taylor, 2007). Ultimately whether it is a First-world or Third-world country, garment workers are exploited mainly due to cheap labor.

6.2.1.2 A Harmful environment

The production of cotton which entails the use of a large amount of pesticides, harmful to the environment and to people. Statistics have shown that nearly 2 billion USD worth of pesticides are used yearly, of which pesticides worth about 819 million USD have been declared poisonous as per the guidelines of the WHO. The health of the workers spraying pesticides in cotton fields are adversely affected. Pesticide poisoning can lead to negative symptoms such as headaches, tremors, loss of consciousness and, in some extreme cases, death. The constant use of toxic pesticides leads to air, water and soil pollution. Apart from the pests, pesticides also cause the death of other small animals and birds consuming them inadvertently.

6.2.1.3 Copyrights Issues

Due to the wide range of clothing, accessories and jeweleries in the market today, many retailers face the issue of copyrighting someone else’s product and this have led to many problematic issues over the years. Fashion-retail powerhouse LVMH has created their own form of brand protection to deal with the growing number of counterfeiting products in the market. Based in France, LVMH has been aided by police operations leading to the arrest of many illegal vendors selling counterfeited products which helped to raise the awareness of buying illegal products in consumers. Many countries have also created organizations and guilds to prevent such issues from arising. In the US, the Fashion Originators’ Guild of America was created to patent and prevent the copying of clothing designs. They provided a registration scheme for manufacturers, who would then collectively boycott retailers if they were caught selling copied items.

A Case Study on Copyright Violation: eBay Inc.

Figure 45: eBay breaking copyright laws again (Photo courtesy of eBay.com )

eBay.com, managed by American Internet Company eBay Inc, is a shopping website which provides online auctions for people and businesses to buy and sell a broad variety of goods and services worldwide. In June 2008, the Paris commercial court ordered eBay to pay nearly 40 million euros in damages to Louis Vuitton for selling fake luxury goods in a ruling due to copyright protection. Further selling of fake luxury perfume which bore the name of Louis Vuitton later that year led to the fining of eBay in which they have to pay LMVH 80,000 euros in damages.

6.2.1.4 Ethical Issues

Animal rights have also brought up ethical issues related to the fashion industry time and time again. The cruelty to animals behind the preparation of a fur coat has been the biggest issue in animal-rights activists as it is currently associated in developed countries with expensive, designer clothing, For example, pain is caused to animals in extracting wool and leather, which most of the time lead to the deaths of these animals.

6.2.2 The Need for Intervention: Garment Workers

6.2.2.1 Immigration Laws and Acts

In recent times, countries like USA and UK have stepped up on their laws and regulations to prevent the exploitation of garment workers. Immigration Acts such as The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 in USA allows an annual limitation of 170,000 visas established for immigrants from Eastern Hemisphere countries with no more than 20,000 per country. This means that garment workers with proper visas are given similar benefits to US Citizens. However, immigration laws and acts are seen as a paradox to the retail industry as many household retail names would then lose substantial amount of sales due to the « disappearance of undocumented workers ». One example would be Roland Kosser, president-owner of ID#, a popular sportshirt and sweatshirt maker in the US who mentioned: « This will cost me $10 million in sales this year… My sewing contractors are telling me they don’t have the workers… » (Cole, Benjamin Mark, 1987).

6.2.2.2 The International Labor Organization (ILO)

Figure 46: International Labor Organization (Photo courtesy of www.ilo.org )

The International Labor Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that tackles labour issues and has received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1969 (Alcock, A, 1971). The ILO organizes the International Labor Conference in Geneva every year, and has to a great extent, successfully tackled the issues, among others, of forced labor and child labor. However, though many countries have recognized the regulations set by the ILO, many countries continue to exploit the workers by not fully enforcing the ILO’s laws and treaties. The ILO in all its efforts has proven to contribute to an improving human rights situation for the world’s Indigenous peoples.

6.2.2.3 Non-Profit Organizations and Campaign Groups

Coalitions of Non-Profit Organizations, many designer and campaign groups have sought to improve these conditions by sponsoring awareness-raising campaigns, mainly through world-wide events which draw the attention of the media and the public. Some of the major groups are discussed below:

6.2.2.3.1 Clean Clothes Campaign (CCC)

Figure 47: Logo of Clean Clothes Campaign (Photo courtesy of www.cleanclothes.org )

The Clean Clothes Campaign (CCC) is dedicated to improving working conditions and supporting the empowerment of workers in the global garment and sportswear industries. Formed in the Netherlands in 1989, the CCC has campaigns in 14 European countries and works with a partner network of more than 250 organizations around the world.

Successes

The CCC has developed a « Code of Labour Practices for the Apparel Industry Including Sportswear » based upon the conventions of the United Nations’ International Labour Organization. The principles set forth in this code include, among others, a minimum employment age and safe working requirements. The CCC also pressures retailers and manufacturers to adopt the Code of Labour Practices and many successful campaigning by the CCC has led many businesses to adopt this Code of standards for suppliers.

6.2.2.3.2 The Garment Industry Development Corporation (GIDC)

Figure 48: Images of GIDC (Photo courtesy of gidc.org )

The Garment Industry Development Corporation (GIDC) is a non-profit organization established in 1984 and has evolved into a multi-tiered service organization providing marketing, buyer referrals, and training and technical assistance to New York apparel manufacturers and workers. GIDC’s main aim is to provide for a worker’s education and GIDC’s Board of Directors include some of the top leaders of New York’s Fashion industry including; Elie Tahari; Thomas Murry – COO, Calvin Klein; and Bud Konheim – CEO, Nicole Miller. This shows the awareness of top fashion retail players who are concern about the rights and working environment of their workers.

6.2.3 The Need for Intervention: Animal Rights

6.2.3.1 People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA)

Figure 49: Logo of PETA (Photo courtesy of peta.org )

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) in the US claims the largest animal rights group status in the world. PETA focuses on four core issues: factory farming, fur farming, animal testing and animals in entertainment and has continuously campaigned against the killing of animals. In the fashion retail industry, PETA, along with other animal rights groups have called for attention to the extraction of fur and other practices they consider cruel.

7 PREDICTING THE FUTURE OF FASHION RETAIL: ONLINE SHOPPING

Online shopping is the process whereby consumers directly buy goods, without an intermediary service over the Internet. Online shopping provides many advantages such as convenience, price and selection and information and reviews, where ratings from other fellow shoppers are given as an indicator of how popular an item is.

In the realm of fashion retail, we look to fashion blogs as the key to online shopping. A fashion blog can cover many things such as clothing and accessories. They cover fashion at all levels from the biggest names to the smallest indie designers and clothing worn by people on the street (Newman, Andrew Adam, 2006). Influential fashion blogs include Catwalk Queen and Style Bubble in the United Kingdom, with the latter named among the Evening Standard’s ‘London’s 1000 most influential’ in the Fashion category.

Recent media reports mentioned that many fashion blogs have become increasingly profitable, and that the influence of fashion blogs within the fashion industry is expanding. As fashion is driven by trends and fashion blogs provide new ways to follow these trends, it is most certainly they will have a considerable long-term influence on the fashion retail industry. It could also be said that fashion blogs are now developing from a hobby, to a viable new media business.

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Les magasins d’électronique ont-ils besoin d’un nouveau business model?

Aux Etats-Unis, Best Buy, la première chaîne de magasins d’électronique et d’électroménager (sorte de Darty) vient d’annoncer un plan de restructuration drastique, avec la fermeture de nombreux magasins. Peu de temps après, son PDG démissionnait.

Il faut dire que le secteur n’est pas au mieux de sa forme. Le principal concurrent de Best Buy, Circuit City, a d’ailleurs fermé ses portes il y a quelques années. Et je doute que la situation soit nettement meilleure dans les autres pays, que ce soit en France ou ailleurs.

D’une part, la valeur ajoutée qu’apportent les grandes surfaces en matière de produits électronique a diminué depuis l’avènement d’Internet. Le Web permet en effet de comparer beaucoup de modèles, d’obtenir les caractéristiques techniques, et bien sûr d’avoir les meilleurs prix. De leur côté, les grandes surfaces n’apportent que peu de connaissance technique. Le SAV consiste souvent à renvoyer l’appareil défectueux au constructeur, et cela fait plusieurs décennies que le personnel compétent s’y fait rare. Trop de vendeurs ne font que lire les étiquettes, lorsqu’ils n’essaient pas de fourguer les produits qu’on leur a dit de vendre.

Car les magasins sont avant tout au service de leurs fournisseurs plus que du consommateur – et en particulier du fournisseur qui a payé le plus pour que son produit soit le mieux en évidence. Les vendeurs ont donc pour consigne de vendre ledit produit en priorité, ce qui a entraîné de nombreuses pratique malhonnêtes : dérégler les télévisions concurrentes pour mieux faire valoir la “bonne” télévision, vendeurs qui sortent des mensonges éhontés, etc. Je n’ai jamais entendu parler de “vendeur de la Fnac” comme un compliment.

Les magasins “réels” apportent pourtant de la valeur ajouté : permettre de voire et d’essayer le produit en vrai. Le problème est que les clients ont appris à aller voir le produit en magasin et à l’acheter en ligne au meilleur prix.

Besoin d’un autre business model

Une stratégie serait bien évidemment de copier Amazon.com et de s’orienter vers la vente numérique. Mais ce n’est pas la seule manière.

Car il y a toujours un besoin de voir et essayer certains produits électroniques (notez le “certains”). Si le public n’a pas besoin de voir 50 modèles différents de portables PC qui se ressemblent tous, il peut être intéressé pour voir comment fonctionne une tablette Android ou une liseuse telle que le Kindle d’Amazon.com.

Et pour ce qui est du consommateur qui consulte en magasin et qui achètent en ligne, ce problème serait résolu si les grandes surfaces facturaient les constructeurs de matériel pour tout sauf un pourcentage sur les ventes : le placement dans leurs rayons, avoir du personnel qualifié qui sait répondre aux questions techniques, une facturation nominale pour couvrir les frais des transactions des ventes. On peut même imaginer un système de service à la carte où HP, Dell et autres constructeurs décident du niveau de service qu’ils veulent que le magasin fournisse (uniquement démonstration mais pas de vente, etc.). Mais en évitant de se prendre un pourcentage des ventes, les magasins évitent le piège Internet. Leur but devient d’informer plus que de vendre.

Bien évidemment, ce modèle ne s’applique pas à tous les types de produit hi-tech. Non seulement tous les produits ne gagnent pas à être visible en magasin, mais une grande surface peut difficilement avoir du personnel compétent si elle vend trop de produits.

Cela impliquerait des magasins plus petits, avec un inventaire plus restreint mais plus ciblé. Exit les webcams, PC et autres commodités. Ils peuvent être tout autant être vus sur le Web. Par contre, un tel magasin serait l’endroit de choix pour se renseigner sur les technologies encore nouvelles : tablettes, streaming vidéo sur son téléviseur, etc.

Je doute que des géants tels que Best Buy ou la Fnac se lancent dans ce genre de magasin. Il est toujours très difficile de vendre moins de produits – et donc de voir décliner ses revenus. A moins qu’ils ne lancent leur propre sous-marque. Mais la plus grande chance est de venir d’un nouveau venu. Les opérateurs mobiles pourraient se lancer dans le créneau, étant donné qu’ils ont déjà des magasins de taille plus restreinte qui mettent en avant les téléphones portables et smartphones dernier cri. Les magasins de jeu vidéo ou de location vidéo sont une autre possibilité.

Encore faut-il que quelqu’un se décide à lancer un business model différent…

Forever 21 de la pub des images des magasins, la puissance des photos sur internet….Forever 21 une enseigne qui communique sur le net!

Today, Saturday, May 29, 2010, the new Forever 21 store in the Shinjuku area of Tokyo will hold its grand opening. Last night, before the “official opening”, the store hosted a special “Pre-Opening Party” event where fans of the brand were invited – along with Japanese celebrities – to do a bit of early shopping. Plenty of Tokyo girls showed up ready to buy, buy, buy. Smiling shoppers clutching the famous yellow Forever 21 shopping bags could be seen flooding out of the store and into the streets of Shinjuku.

Comment Disney a failli inventer IKEA

Le modèle Airline de Weber. Milwaukee Art Museum– Le modèle Airline de Weber. Milwaukee Art Museum –

En 1938, Walt Disney et son frère Roy, qui ont investi près d’1,5 million de dollars (un record pour l’époque) dans leur long-métrage d’animation «Blanche-Neige et les Sept Nains», se frottent les mains. Parue l’année précédente, l’œuvre a reçu un accueil sans précédent, aux Etats-Unis comme à l’étranger.

Le duo décide de faire bâtir des studios d’animation à la mesure de ses besoins. Les frères acquièrent à Burbank un terrain de plus de 200.000 m2 et confient la conception à un architecte couru, Kem Weber. Le bâtiment abritera les studios d’animation jusque dans les années 1980. Des dizaines de films naîtront au sein de l’«Animation Building», bâtiment en forme de «H», pourvu de couloirs en sous-sol (une organisation quasi-militaire souhaitée par Walt Disney, qui permettait une circulation aisée et cachée des regards entre les bureaux d’animation et les autres départements).

Bureaux et chaises, tables de dessinateurs, rangements, Weber créé également le mobilier. Disney apprécie le style du designer. Il a justement demandé à Weber de s’inspirer, pour l’architecture du bâtiment, des lignes de son fauteuil favori. L’Airline, dessiné par Weber quatre ans auparavant, lorsque celui-ci était au sommet de sa popularité, n’avait pourtant pas connu le destin que son créateur avait imaginé.

A dire vrai, on pourrait parler de «flop»: aucun fabricant ni distributeur n’a vraiment accepté de se frotter au concept. Un fauteuil vendu en kit, à assembler soi-même; de bonne qualité, mais abordable, et enfin signé d’un designer-décorateur en vogue? Voilà qui aurait pu séduire une Amérique rendue fort prudente depuis le krach boursier de 1929.

weber2

Mobilier pour les bureaux Disney

Mais Weber n’est pas parvenu à en faire fabriquer plus de deux centaines, lesquelles d’ailleurs lui sont restées sur les bras. Quelques années plus tard, Walt Disney les découvre, en tombe raide dingue. Il achète le lot pour meubler ses studios (dont ses propres bureaux au sein de l’Animation Building). Weber ne le sait pas encore, mais son aura de designer avant-gardiste vient de s’éteindre.

Le design américain moderne

Né Karl Emanuel Martin Weber à Berlin en 1889 (l’acronyme K.E.M. fera office de prénom à partie des années 1920), il se forme à l’ébénisterie, puis à l’architecture et la décoration d’intérieur à l’Ecole d’arts appliqués de Berlin. En 1914, il part superviser la construction du pavillon de l’Allemagne  pour l’exposition «Panama-Pacifique» à San Francisco.

La guerre éclate en août, ce qui l’empêche de retourner en Europe: en Californie, il décroche quelques contrats dans la publicité ou la décoration. En mai 1915, un sous-marin allemand torpille le paquebot britannique Lusitania, parti de New York. Se prénommer «Karl» ne joue pas en sa faveur ; faute de clients, il devient successivement bûcheron, puis éleveur de poulets.

weber

Il s’installe à Santa Barbara en 1918 pour enseigner l’art et ouvrir un atelier au sein d’une église à l’abandon. Il vivote quelques années avant de se faire remarquer par les frères Barker, à la tête d’un grand magasin de mobilier de Los Angeles. Pendant quelques années, Weber produit des pièces hispanisantes à la mode, de bois sombre et aux courbes ondulantes. A court d’inspiration, il convainc les «Barker Brothers» de subventionner un voyage en Espagne en 1925.

En chemin, il s’arrête à Paris et visite «l’Exposition internationale des Arts décoratifs et industriels modernes». L’événement fera date, et donnera son nom au style «Art déco». Frappé par les créations innovantes des architectes et designers Robert Mallet-Stevens, Le Corbusier, ou Pierre Charreau, Kem Weber revient aux Etats-Unis avec une certitude: l’avenir du mobilier est au modernisme.

Les frères Barker se montrent peu disposés à bouleverser leur offre, mais Weber finit par imposer son idée. En 1926, il prend la tête de «Modes and Manners», boutique spécialisée dans les créations modernistes, située au 4e étage du grand magasin Barker Brothers, qui en compte onze: une occurrence précoce de «store-within-a-store».

Mobilier, luminaires, textiles ou arts de la table, les choix de Weber (qui a lui-même dessiné et aménagé les lieux) sont osés. Il a la brillante idée de mettre en scène une salle à manger, où les clients peuvent se restaurer, voir les objets et meubles en situation, se projeter. L’audace paie, le succès est immédiat. Le nom de Weber, associé à celui de Modes and Manners, devient synonyme de «design américain moderne».

Un fauteuil à emporter

On l’admire, on l’imite. Une deuxième branche est bientôt ouverte à Hollywood. Acteurs et pontes de l’industrie du cinéma se ruent sur les créations de Weber, dont les services d’architecte décorateur s’arrachent.

En 1927, Kem Weber quitte Modes and Manners pour ouvrir son propre studio de design; d’employeurs, les Barker deviennent ses clients. Sa réputation dépasse les frontières de l’Etat de Californie: il est l’un des designers les plus réputés du pays. Weber allège et affirme son style, s’affranchit de l’extravagance savamment dosée qui caractérisait le style Modes and Manners.

Formes géométriques répliquées, lignes étirées et angles arrondis: on lit les signes annonciateurs de l’esprit «Streamline» qui régnera bientôt.

La Grande Dépression de 1929 a rendu la clientèle frileuse, sinon économe. Le designer réfléchit, parallèlement aux réalisations qu’il signe pour ses clients fortunés, au moyen d’adapter sa production à un marché élargi. Il propose des pièces abordables (de 20 à 140$) ou ses propres services pour modifier intérieurs ou mobilier de famille, l’adapter au goût du jour – comme on le fait de bijoux qui seraient passés de mode.

Comme ses compatriotes de l’École du Bauhaus, Weber teste le métal tubulaire (la Lloyd Manufacturing Company, dans le Michigan, vendra de très nombreux exemplaires de ses sièges), explore nouvelles techniques et matériaux innovants, bricole des systèmes de jointures tout en bois, facile à assembler. En 1934, il met toute son ardeur dans un projet inédit: inventer un siège qui, à plat, tiendrait dans une boîte suffisamment compacte pour être emportée telle quelle à la maison.

L’Airline Chair, un fauteuil en porte-à-faux au design moderne, pèse moins de huit kilos et ne coûte que 24,75 dollars (le salaire moyen de l’époque est d’environ 1.400 dollars). Impossible de se tromper en l’assemblant, seules deux petites tiges de bois sont à glisser dans des crochets. Il est robuste, et l’inclinaison de son dossier réglable. «Wrap it Up and Take It Home!», titre avec enthousiasme le magazineRetailing en mai 1935.

airline

Cependant, en dépit de ses atouts, le mode de commercialisation proposé par Weber est accueilli avec méfiance. Aucun fabricant ne se risque à produire le fauteuil pour le marché de masse, et la modeste quantité produite ne trouve pas preneur. Jusqu’à ce que Walt Disney s’en entiche, et détourne le fauteuil de sa cible initiale.

Jamais le designer ne trouvera de partenaire commercial pour créer sa collection d’articles d’ameublement d’honnête qualité pour un marché de masse. Ce sont les clients fortunés qui se tournent vers lui, et non l’Américain moyen. L’entrée en guerre des Etats-Unis met un frein à ses activités de design, et Weber propose au gouvernement un système de son invention (qui se solde, lui aussi, d’un échec): des maisons préfabriquées conçues pour se protéger des assauts ennemis.

A l’issue de la guerre, Kem Weber retourne à Santa Barbara, et abandonne le design de mobilier au profit de l’architecture. L’effronté de l’avant-guerre fait vingt ans plus tard figure de «vieux schnock» à côté de la jeune garde du design, le couple Charles et Ray Eames en tête. Les historiens et critiques du style «mid-century modern» américain, dont il est l’un des précurseurs et acteurs jusqu’à sa mort en 1963, oblitèrent peu ou prou son travail pendant quelques décennies.

Indépendamment du parcours de Weber, l’idée fait son chemin. Près de 15 ans après sa création en 1943, l’entreprise du Suédois Ingvar Kamprad intègre la vente de meubles à son catalogue, mais il doit subir la pression que ses concurrents exercent sur ses distributeurs.

Kamprad et ses collaborateurs n’ont d’autre choix que livrer eux-mêmes leurs clients, et l’idée germe en dévissant les pieds d’une table qui devait être glissée dans le coffre d’une voiture: pourquoi ne pas proposer le mobilier à plat, afin que les clients puissent eux-mêmes l’assembler à la maison? IKEA compte alors un unique point de vente, en Suède, et emploie une centaine de personnes.

Vingt ans plus tard, la marque, désormais présente en Europe, en Australie et au Canada, propose le fauteuil en porte-à-faux Poäng (à l’origine baptisé «Poem»), inspiré de modèles traditionnels comme les créations de Bruno Mathsson ou d’Alvar Aalto.

ikea

Le fauteuil Poäng

Celui-ci figure toujours au catalogue de la marque jaune et bleue, étiqueté à partir de 99€ 59€. Des millions d’exemplaires se sont vendus un peu partout dans le monde, où IKEA a essaimé.

L’Airline Chair de Kem Weber, quant à elle, fait de régulières apparitions en salles de ventes. Son «prix marteau» dépasse parfois la barre des 20.000$. Et sa popularité n’est pas un phénomène local: elle est entrée dans la collection de mobilier du musée Victoria & Albert de Londres en 1991.

réédition

L’Airline Chair originale à gauche, la nouvelle mouture signée «Disney» à droite. Image DISNEY.

Vingt ans plus tard, l’énorme machine Disney, sous la marque «Walt Disney Signature» (division «Fashion & Home»), fait appel au designer américain Cory Grosser pour rafraîchir les lignes du «mythe». Abordable, l’Airline Chair nouvelle mouture? Il vous en coûtera 3.900$, auxquels vous ajouterez 1.400$ pour acquérir un repose-pieds coordonné. Chez Disney, on maîtrise le sujet: les belles histoires font toujours vendre.

Elodie Palasse-Leroux

Sources: «K. Weber and the rise of modern design in Southern California», Christopher Long (biographe de Kem Weber), The Magazine Antiques ; «K. Weber, the most important mid-century modern designer you never heard of», Collector’s Weekly.

Starbucks concurrence de plus en plus McDonald’s

EXPERTISE BOURSE – Au match de la franchise vs. les magasins en propre, Goldman Sachs vient d’opter pour le second modèle en ajoutant Starbucks à sa liste recommandée aux dépens de McDo.

Au match de la franchise vs. le réseau en propre, Goldman Sachs vient d’opter pour le second modèle en ajoutant Starbucks à sa liste de valeurs US fortement conseillées, aux dépens de McDonald’s. L’action Starbucks en a profité pour atteindre un nouveau sommet à 57,65 dollars, mais l’objectif de Goldman Sachs anticipe une nouvelle progression jusqu’à 66 dollars, justifiant un relèvement de «neutre» à «acheter» de sa recommandation.

«Nous pensons que la société est vouée à un cycle de croissance renouvelée qui pourrait amener au moins un doublement du bénéfice par action d’ici à 2015», indique l’analyste, jugeant le consensus des projections beaucoup trop bas. En outre, les cours du caffé se sont récemment écroulés, ce qui est favorable aux marges.

Le célèbre torréfacteur, fondé à Seattle en 1971, a annoncé le mois dernier une série de développements avec l’ouverture de nouveaux restaurants Evolution Fresh (jus de fruits) ou Seattle’s Best Coffee (chaîne offrant des prix plus bas que Starbucks Coffee), l’extension du champ de son partenariat avec Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, le lancement à l’automne prochain d’une nouvelle machine à expresso, Verismo (le groupe a débuté sur le marché des cafetières pour le domicile en 2009)… Comme le groupe avait déjà surpris agréablement avec des résultats 2011 meilleurs qu’attendus, les analystes sont nombreux à prendre le train en marche et plusieurs ont relevé leurs objectifs.

Le sentiment des Experts Figaro Bourse: Depuis le plancher de fin 2008, l’action Starbucks a plus que quintuplé et ses multiples de valorisation (35 fois le dernier bénéfice annuel) sont très tendus. Mais il est vrai qu’aux Etats-Unis l’enseigne a déjà changé de statut, d’un point de rencontre à la mode pour étudiants et jeunes professionnels, c’est devenu un lieu couru par tous les publics, qui tend même à concurrencer McDo pour les sorties familiales. La croissance est incroyablement rapide et le potentiel de développement, en Europe et surtout dans les pays émergents, est encore considérable. Mais son prix actuel le réserve aux inconditionnels.

Horizon d’investissement: moyen ou long terme, avec un petit rendement (1,2%) pour la route.

Profil d’investisseur: Starbucks plaira à ceux qui sont amateurs d’Apple, leur «success stories» présentent de nombreux points communs.

http://www.starbucks.com/

PIER 1 IMP!1 nouveaux objectifs

Pier 1 Import annonce un nouveau programme de croissance à trois ans, à l’occasion de la publication de ses résultats du quatrième trimestre comptable.

Le distributeur de produits décoratifs pour la maison a engrangé un bénéfice trimestriel de 115 millions de dollars, soit 1,04 dollar. Hors un crédit d’impôt, ce BPA est toutefois resté stable à 48 cents.

Pier 1 Import a amélioré sa marge opérationnelle de 2,7 points à 16,4%, pour un chiffre d’affaires en croissance de 12% à 477 millions de dollars. A périmètre comparable, les ventes se sont accrues de 10%, à la fois grâce à une augmentation de la fréquentation des magasins et à une hausse du ticket moyen.

Pour son nouvel exercice, le groupe table sur un BPA compris entre 1,06 et 1,12 dollar, à comparer à 94 cents sur l’exercice 2011-12, et sur une croissance des ventes à périmètre comparable d’environ 5%.

A cette occasion, Pier 1 Import présente un plan de croissance à trois ans, par lequel il investira 200 millions de dollars en capitaux sur cette période. Il vise une marge opérationnelle d’au moins 12% à horizon 2015, contre 10,1% sur l’année écoulée, et rehausse son objectif de vente par pied carré de 200 à 225 dollars.

Copyright (c) 2012 CercleFinance.com. Tous droits réservés.

http://www.pier1.com/

Joseph Sitt a acquis une quinzaine d’adresses à New York.

Joseph Sitt a acquis une quinzaine d'adresses à New York.
Crédits photo : Jean-Christophe MARMARA/Le
Recommander

Entrepreneur reconnu, Joseph Sitt achète des pieds d’immeuble dans les rues commerçantes des villes les plus tendance.

Rendez-vous était pris dans le quartier de l’Opéra à Paris. Finalement, Joseph Sitt envoie une voiture de maître pour le rejoindre au restaurant de l’hôtel Costes, la cantine des people. Avant d’aller passer les jours suivants au Mipim, le salon de l’immobilier tertiaire. Là, le patron de Thor Equities raconte son histoire. Celle d’un parfait inconnu en France mais d’un businessman qui compte en immobilier commercial aux États-Unis.

Son métier: acheter des pieds d’immeuble dans les rues commerçantes des villes les plus tendance. Et les louer aux marques de luxe comme Gucci, Vuitton ou Brioni. À New York, il a une quinzaine d’adresses, à Manhattan et à Brooklyn. À Chicago quatre, deux à Houston… «Mon métier est d’identifier des lieux bien placés mais un peu vieillissants et de les remettre à niveau pour augmenter leur valeur, souligne-t-il. La première année, le rendement est de 6 à 8%. Au bout de trois ans, il atteint 17-18%.»

Non coté en Bourse, le groupe ne publie pas ses résultats. Néanmoins, on sait que son patrimoine est supérieur à plus de 5 milliards de dollars, ce qui en fait un poid lourd dans ce domaine. D’ailleurs, aux États-Unis, Joseph Sitt, 47 ans, est un serial entrepreneur reconnu. Avant de se lancer dans l’immobilier commercial en 1998, il avait créé et développé une chaîne de magasins de prêt-à-porter féminin, Ashley Stewart. Cette enseigne qui a compté jusqu’à 380 boutiques générait un chiffre d’affaires de 400 millions de dollars. «La vente m’a rapporté plusieurs milliards et m’a permis de me lancer dans ma nouvelle activité», explique-t-il.

Bientôt à Paris

Une aventure qui s’est accélérée depuis quelques mois. D’abord, il a racheté plusieurs adresses sur la 5e Avenue à New York. «Pour 1,6 milliard de dollars.» Sur l’un des emplacements, il y avait un grand magasin japonais, Takashimaya. «Il n’était pas à la hauteur des attentes, sourit-il. Je lui ai donné plus de 100 millions pour qu’il parte tout de suite.» Thor Equities qui va maintenant faire des travaux négocie avec des grandes marques de luxe françaises pour qu’elles s’y installent.

Enfin, Joseph Sitt a décidé de tenter l’aventure européenne. «J’ai ciblé Londres et Paris car ce sont des villes présentes dans le cinéma international et c’est donc la destination des nouveaux riches des pays émergents», analyse-t-il. À Londres, il a acheté fin 2010 Burlington Arcade, la plus vieille galerie commerciale anglaise qui héberge des boutiques de luxe. Il est en train de la remettre en goût du jour. «Mais si je la vendais aujourd’hui, je ferai une grosse plus-value: elle vaut plus de 200 millions de livres alors que nous l’avons payé 103,5 millions de livres», souligne-t-il. Enfin, à Paris, cet entrepreneur vibrionnant dit avoir finalisé l’achat d’une adresse proche des Champs-Élysées. Mais pour l’instant, il ne veut rien en dire.

Home Depot: termine 2011 sur un trimestre souriant.

Signe d’une amélioration de la situation du marché immobilier américain ces derniers mois, Home Depot a terminé son exercice 2011 sur un quatrième trimestre meilleur que prévu.

La chaîne américaine de magasins de bricolage annonce un bénéfice net trimestriel accru de 32% à 774 millions de dollars, soit 50 cents par action, un BPA sensiblement supérieur aux anticipations du marché.

Le groupe américain a profité d’un chiffre d’affaires trimestriel en hausse de 5,9% à 16 milliards de dollars en données publiées, et de 5,7% à surface comparable (+6,1% aux États-Unis).

‘Nous avons terminé l’exercice 2011 en forme, et aidés par un contexte météorologique favorable, nos résultats ont dépassé nos attentes’, commente le PDG Frank Blake.

Sur l’ensemble de l’année 2011, Home Depot a engrangé un BPA en augmentation de 23% à 2,47 dollars, pour des revenus en croissance organique de 3,4% à 70,4 milliards de dollars, des chiffres au-dessus de ses estimations de novembre dernier.

Pour l’exercice comptable en cours, qui comptera 53 semaines, la direction prévoit un BPA en hausse de 13% à 2,79 dollars et une croissance du chiffre d’affaires d’environ 4%.

Copyright (c) 2012 CercleFinance.com. Tous droits réservés.

http://www.homedepot.com/

Google veut faire la visite de votre magasin

Le géant américain, par le biais de son service Street View, incite les commerçants à apparaître en ligne. Un bon business en perspective…

Google propose aux commerçants de grandes villes de faire photographier l’intérieur de leur magasin.

Des photographes agréés Google

Voilà maintenant quelques semaines que Google communique sur son nouveau projet intégré dans Street View. Celui-ci consiste à photographier l’intérieur des commerces afin de publier ces images panoramiques sur Google Maps.

Apparemment, la première phase de ce programme a séduit puisque quelques milliers de commerces sont d’ores et déjà photographiés. Et parce que Google semble visiblement dépassé par la demande, le géant américain s’organise autrement.

google maps photographie magasin

Une sorte de label Google pour des photographes locaux permet d’accélérer le processus de photographie de capture. Si vous êtes commerçants, il faut vous rendre sur cette nouvelle mouture du site web, puis prendre contact avec le photographe agréé Google le plus proche. La séance devrait durer 1 heure et vous pourrez convenir avec le photographe la manière dont vous voulez mettre en avant votre commerce sur ces clichés.

Google a tout intérêt à poursuivre cette numérisation puisqu’il ne fait aucun doute qu’il sera un jour possible de se déplacer à l’intérieur de ces magasins et de payer ou réserver en ligne. Et la firme de Mountain View se placera en tant qu’intermédiaire et prendra certainement une commission sur les transactions.

Le 04/02/2012 par MemoClic

Lire la suite : http://www.memoclic.com/624-google-maps/15765-google-maps-photographies-commerces.html#ixzz1lbiEmwPL